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Court House 

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Court House 

Appomattox Court House National 
Historical Park, Virginia 

Produced by the 
Division of Publications 
National Park Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 
Washington, D.C. 1980 

The National Park Handbook Series 

National Park Handbooks, compact introductions 
to the great natural and historic places adminis- 
tered by the National Park Service, are designed 
to promote understanding and enjoyment of the 
parks. Each is intended to be informative reading 
and a useful guide before, during, and after a park 
visit. More than 100 titles are in print. This is 
Handbook 109. You may purchase the handbooks 
through the mail by writing to Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington DC 20402. 

About This Book 

Appomattox Court House National Historical 
Park is the site of Robert E. Lee's surrender of 
the Army of Northern Virginia to Ulysses S. 
Grant, commander of U.S. forces. The tiny village 
in south central Virginia is restored to its 1865 ap- 
pearance. Part 1 of this book puts the historic 
events into the context of a trip to the park. Part 2 
traces the historic events of April 2-9, 1865. And 
Part 3 contains a tourist's guide to the park. 

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

United States. National Park Service. 
Appomattox Court House National Historical 
Park, Virginia. 

(Handbook — National Park Service; 109) 
Bibliography: p. Includes index. 

CONTENTS: Welcome to Appomattox: Luvaas, J. 
Appomattox: a new look. Photos: W. A. Bake. — 
The Surrender: Cullen, J. P. The reestablishment 
of peace and harmony. Personalities at Appomat- 
tox. Newspaper accounts, [etc.] 
Supt. of Docs. no. I 29.9/5;109 
1. Appomattox Court House National Historical 
Park,Va. 2. Appomattox Campaign, 1865. 
I. Title. II. Series: United States. National Park 
Service Handbook — National Park Service; 109 
F232.A6U54 1980 9 17. 55 '625 80-607775 


Part 1 

Welcome to Appomattox 5 

Appomattox: A New Look 9 

by Jay Luvaasl Photographs by William A. Bake 

Part 2 

The Surrender 29 

The Reestablishment of Peace and Harmony 31 

by Joseph P. Cullen 

Personalities at Appomattox 54 
Newspaper Accounts 67 

Part 3 

Guide and Adviser 81 

From Battlefield to Park 83 

Visiting the Village Today 86 

The Route of Lee's Retreat 98 

Documents of the Surrender 103 

Civil War Battlefields and Related Sites 107 

Armchair Explorations: Some Books You May 

Want to Read 109 

Index 110 

/ .1 

■ < ' ( 111 


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Appomattox: A New Look 

by Jay Luvaas I Photographs by William A. Bake 

The plain, simple buildings of 
Appomattox Court House 
provided the backdrop for im- 
portant historic events. From 
the attic of Clover Hill Tav- 
ern, you can see Meeks Store 
and Woodson's Law Office 

I'll not forget my first pilgrimage to Appomattox. 
Although it was the anniversary date of the surrender 
there were no visible signs of spring such as there 
had been on April 9, 1865. No buds or blossoms 
tinged the landscape, the grass had not yet turned 
spring green, and instead of the mild sun described 
in eyewitness accounts, the weather was cold, over- 
cast, and gusty. Most of the time it was spitting snow. 

Perhaps this is why our spirits were gloomy. We 
were a group of about 25, some of whom had 
tramped battlefields together for as many years. We 
came from all walks of life — corporation executives, 
garage mechanics, doctors, salesmen, and a few 
teachers, and we came from such diverse places as 
Sarasota, Ottawa, Durham, and northwest Pennsyl- 
vania. All the way from Petersburg, as we retraced 
the final marches and located the breastworks thrown 
up by the two armies, the group had been strangely 
silent. Even the more boisterous spirits among us 
seemed subdued. There was none of the usual chat- 
ter or good natured banter; the doctor who on similar 
marches would habitually sharpen his batting eye by 
knocking cans with his 'Tennessee Walking Stick 1 
seemed absorbed in his own thoughts. Most of the 
men spoke in whispers the entire day. I think we 
were all relieved when we headed back to Peters- 

No doubt the dull weather contributed to our 
mood, but obviously what bothered us most was the 
dawning realization that for the tired, bedraggled, 
hungry, and proud men of Lee's army, the war was 
over. We should have rejoiced but most of us had 
marched too long in those long-dead ranks not to 
share the agony and frustration of defeat. For over 
the years, as we refought one Civil War battle after 
another on location and with appropriate maps and 
volumes of the Official Records in hand, we had come 
to know what those officers and men had to endure 
and how much stamina, ingenuity, and courage it 

took for them to fight for so long — and so success- 
fully. As we had tried to sort out the thinking and 
behavior of the men on both sides, it was the Con- 
federate strategy and troop handling that had im- 
pressed us the most, and this was true even of those 
who lived north of the Mason and Dixon line, though 
I would never admit so much to my good North 
Carolina friends. 

We all felt pretty much that Appomattox repre- 
sented an end rather than a beginning. There would 
be no tomorrows for Lee's soldiers. It was over. The 
pain, suffering, and horrible cost were all in vain; 
the brilliant victories counted for nothing. 

I was curious therefore to see whether these 
impressions would persist when I next had an excuse 
to visit Appomattox. On this occasion I went alone, 
with maps, books, and a little more time to poke 
around. Once again I followed in the footsteps of 
the armies as they marched and fought their way to 
Appomattox, but this time, deliberately, I focused 
my attention on the Union efforts. Viewed in this 
light, the Appomattox campaign emerges not so 
much as a retreat to a surrender site as an energetic 
and well-directed pursuit of a formidable army. 
"Push around the enemy, if you can, and get on to 
his right rear," Grant had instructed Sheridan at the 
outset of the campaign. "I mean to end the business 
here.' 1 The response from his fiery cavalry com- 
mander was characteristic: "I tell you, I'm ready to 
strike out tomorrow and go to smashing things." 
Grant meanwhile had discussed with President Lin- 
coln, who was then visiting headquarters at City 
Point, the terms that should be given to Lee on sur- 
render, and he had briefed his staff on his intentions 
and what he expected of each corps in different cir- 
cumstances. There was a new aggressive spirit afoot 
in the federal armies, reminiscent of the single eye 
and driving energy of Lee and Jackson in earlier 

I began my journey to Appomattox at Petersburg. 
Driving along the Union siege lines I proceeded to 
Hatcher's Run and Five Forks. "Our way led 
through bogs, tangled woods and thickets of pine, 
interspersed with open spaces here and there," a 
Union general had recorded in his after-action re- 
port, and the country today is still grubby and lacking 
in feature. Remembering that the maps available in 


Walking about Appomattox 
Court House today is like 
stepping back in time. The 
town, restored by the National 
Park Service, is not much dif- 
ferent than it was in the 1860s. 
What's missing to make the 
picture complete are a few 
buildings and fences. Tourists 
have replaced the residents, 
and a feeling of serenity still 
pervades the community. 

1865 gave no topography except for the main streams 
and roads and did not always distinguish forest, 
clearings, or swamps, I wondered how the blue col- 
umns had found their way; it is difficult even with 
modern road maps. 

Eventually I reached Five Forks, a vital strategic 
point that blocked Sheridan's further advance to the 
Southside Railroad a short distance beyond. If the 
railroad line were captured or destroyed Lee would 
have to evacuate and either move west, in the di- 
rection of Lynchburg, or south into North Carolina 
to join the remnants of Joseph E. Johnston's com- 

At Five Forks, the visitor can see the Confederate 
breastworks, complete with the unusual traverses of 
the type also found near the Bloody Angle at 
Spotsylvania Court House. Here, on April 1, 1865, 
Sheridan's cavalry aided by the Union Fifth Corps 
overwhelmed a Confederate force one-third as large, 
thus opening the way to the Southside and also ex- 
posing the extreme right of the Confederate works 
at Hatcher's Run. This was followed the next day 
by what General Meade considered to be kt the de- 
cisive moment of the campaign," when the Sixth 
Corps smashed through the Confederate lines op- 
posite Fort Fisher, south and a little west of Peters- 
burg. The Sixth Corps penetrated all the way to the 
Appomattox River and then swung left against Con- 
federate forces in the vicinity of Hatcher's Run. The 
Twenty-Fourth Corps passed through the breach and 
then moved to the right in the direction of Peters- 
burg, capturing several Confederate lines and finally 
crowning the day with a successful assault on Fort 

That night Lee pulled his remaining troops out of 
the Petersburg lines to join the rest of his army as 
it trudged by prearranged routes to Amelia Court 
House, where he hoped to concentrate and find the 
supplies desperately needed by his dwindling com- 

Strictly speaking Grant did not pursue Lee: to fol- 
low the retreating Confederates would only drive 
them into the mountains, where they could prolong 
the war for months, or enable them to unite with 
Johnston's army in North Carolina where they might 
fall upon Sherman. But in either case he was deter- 
mined to intercept the Confederates. As one of his 


We tend to think that the pro- 
liferation of manufactured 
articles is a 20th-century 
phenomenon. This shelf (right) 
in Meeks' Store shows a wide 
selection of medicines and 
goods available to the citizens 
of 19th century Appomattox 
Court House. 

The store was also the post of- 
fice, and just as they do today, 
people looked forward to get- 
ting the latest magazines and 
newspapers in their boxes and 
to chatting with their neigh- 
bors when they went to Meeks' 
Store to pick up their mail. 

chief subordinate generals put it, "the whole army 
was inspired with but one determination — to hunt 
the rebels down and whip them into surrender. 5 ' 

Driving along these country roads, where the ter- 
rain is still heavily wooded and often swampy, I 
marveled at the way in which these columns re- 
mained in contact with each other, spread as they 
were over a great distance. Did the troops have a 
clear idea what was happening? Much was demanded 
of them, for the roads were bad and the supply trains 
wallowed way behind. For the first time I realized 
that the Union soldiers also were hungry and short 
of rations, and while a more buoyant mood perhaps 
took some of the weight out of their haversacks, they 
too were pushed to the limits of endurance. 

On the evening of April 4, Sheridan reached the 
Danville railroad at Jetersville, where he learned 
that Lee's army was at Amelia Court House just east 
of there. His men quickly constructed a formidable 
line of breastworks, part of which remain, still im- 

While Sheridan and Meade awaited battle, Lee 
discovered that he had no time to wait for his rations. 
The supplies which supposedly had been ordered to 
be sent to Amelia Court House from Danville had 
not arrived and the route was now blocked by three 
Union corps. Amelia today still possesses much of 
the charm that it held for a Union officer who visited 
it a few months after the war: 

. . . of the sleepy old Virginia type, its houses 
unpretentious and its streets unpaved, varying kinds 
of paling and board fences enclose the door yards, 
some of which are enlivened by clumps of flowers 
and bending rose bushes in bloom, and now and 
then a sweetly breathing honeysuckle clambers 
affectionately over a porch window. 

But Lee's soldiers probably were not charmed by 
this old shire town. 

It was a drizzly, dismal day as the "wet, tired and 
famishing troops" arrived only to learn that the 
promised rations were not at hand. The next morning 
an unusually large number of troops did not respond 
at roll call and a Confederate cavalryman recorded: 
"I beheld the first signs of dissolution of that grand 
army which had endured every hardship of march 


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Spring is a gentle time of year 
in central Virginia with the 
scent of blooms on soft warm 
breezes and the return of a 
bright green color to the ivy. 

Stone, wood, and brick are all 
locally available materials. 
Used in the Kelly House, 
pages 16-17, they have 
created an interesting blend of 
textures and colors. 

and camp with unshaken fortitude, when looking 
over the hills I saw swarms of stragglers moving in 
every direction." "Our army is ruined, I fear," wrote 
another, and when his letter was captured and de- 
livered to Sheridan, the Union commander renewed 
his exertions. 

After a demonstration in the direction of Jeters- 
ville Lee slipped away to the west, with Sheridan's 
cavalry moving cross-country on a parallel line of 
march. The terrain here is more broken and begins 
to lift and roll as one approaches the mountains — 
"a great improvement," Colonel Lyman reported 
from Meade's headquarters, "full of hills, not high 
but steep, with a nice brook in every hollow." 

At one of these brooks called Sailor's Creek, the 
Union advance caught up with the Confederate rear. 
The battlefield is much as it was then, a picturesque 
site where one can easily reconstruct mentally what 
happened. The Hillsman house, where the Union 
artillery beat back a determined but ill-advised 
counterattack by the Confederates, still stands, and 
from the modest parking area on the Confederate 
side of the creek it is easy to see how the slight rise 
in the false crest of the hill could give shelter from 
the shells of the Union guns. 

For the Confederates the day was a disaster. Seven 
to eight thousand soldiers and eight generals had 
been captured, the staff organization had broken 
down, and serious morale problems had arisen in 
the ranks. From a distant vantage point Lee, seeing 
the remnants of two corps fleeing across the fields, 
was heard to exclaim: "My God, has the army been 
dissolved?" On the other side of the hill Sheridan 
wrote Grant: "If the thing is pressed, I think that 
Lee will surrender." The message was forwarded to 
Lincoln, who was still at City Point waiting impa- 
tiently for news, and back came the laconic reply: 
"Let the thing be pressed." 

Lee then ordered what remained of his army to cross 
the Appomattox. Longstreet's men crossed at Farm- 
ville where they were issued their first rations in five 
days. But even as they entered Farmville the Army 
of the James was upon their flank and rear, while 
to the east the Second Corps poured across the spec- 
tacular High Bridge spanning the Appomattox. This 
line of advance threatened Lee's only route of re- 
treat. With no time to waste, the trains of supplies 



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The Clover Hill Tavern, 
pages 18-19, welcomes today 's 
tourists as it once sheltered 
weary travelers on their 
journeys. Inside you can see 
the room where the paroles 
were printed. 

The town's residents gathered 
in the tavern (right) to trade 
gossip, read newspapers, and 
talk about important matters. 
A facsimile of the order (be- 
low) stating the terms of the 
paroles given the Confederates 
sits near the printing press 
used to print them. 

were sent westward by rail, and the weary army re- 
sumed its march along the Lynchburg road, hoping 
to catch up with its supplies at Appomattox station. 
But again Sheridan's cavalry leapfrogged ahead to 
block the way. Finally, even the most optimistic 
among the Confederates knew that there was "noth- 
ing left ... to do but to go and see General Grant." 
For Lee it was like dying a thousand deaths. 

Today Appomattox Court House is an unpretentious 
village on a windswept ridge, a quiet spot that main- 
tains its importance with patient dignity. Unlike such 
well-worn tourist paths as Fredericksburg, Vicks- 
burg, or Gettysburg, where history is a mantle 
proudly worn, Appomattox seems to make a deter- 
mined effort to keep its importance in perspective. 
Thirteen of the buildings that existed in April 1865 
remain in the village today, while nine other struc- 
tures including the McLean house, where the sur- 
render actually took place, have been reconstructed 
on the original sites. But for the absence of normal 
village sounds — men at work, children playing, an 
occasional wagon lumbering by, and the noise from 
chickens and livestock — it seems almost like a step 
back into the 19th-century. As one of my friends 
said, "there was a kind of isolated grandeur about 
the site, an extraordinary sort of remoteness, an ex- 
istence outside time. This sense of being in an ele- 
vated, remote and even hidden place seemed to be 
utterly fitting: a right place to end the most American 
of wars, in a setting quintessentially American." This 
too sets it apart from other Civil War sites and even 
from places like Yorktown and Williamsburg. 

Now 1 realize that it is the quiet that forces one 
to ponder the meaning of events here. I could almost 
see those historic figures in the McLean house as 
they agreed on the terms of surrender, and it oc- 
curred to me that had the generals been able to de- 
termine the course of reconstruction, the nation 
probably would have been better off. Lee resisted 
any temptation to disperse his army and resort to 
guerrilla warfare, which would have prolonged the 
agony of the war for months. His dignified accept- 
ance of the surrender terms and his conduct after 
the war established the model for thousands of ad- 
mirers to emulate. And Grant, who felt no glee "at 
the downfall of a foe who had fought so long and 


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In the quietness of an early 
spring day, Lee and Grant ar- 
rived at the McLean House, 
pages 22-23, and sat down in 
its comfortable parlor, pages 
24-25, to bring an end to the 
war, a war in which Ameri- 
cans were killing Americans. 
Some dead from both sides 
were buried in the small ceme- 
tery at the west end of the vil- 

valiantly, " was as generous in victory as he had been 
persistent throughout the 1864-65 campaigns. Had 
the political leaders in Washington after Lincoln's 
assassination, five days later, followed the restraint 
of the military leaders, the wounds caused by the 
war would have healed more quickly. It was another 
general, the notorious Sherman, who had insisted 
that "the legitimate object of war is a more perfect 
peace. " Political leaders, particularly in a democracy 
where they must respond to an aroused public opin- 
ion, are often inclined to be vindictive. 

Among popular writers of history it has become 
fashionable to view the Civil War as a necessary 
"ordeal by fire," a national catharsis out of which 
the United States emerged united, purified, and 
ready for its gigantic industrial growth and role as 
a world leader. This preposterous notion has always 
irritated me and never more so than when I stood 
that day at Appomattox pondering the future lives 
of the men who had been spared to resume the pur- 
suits of peace. For such an interpretation must nec- 
essarily assume that the war was both inevitable and 
good, and that the peace that followed would be 
honorable. But the postwar years were among the 
most corrupt in American political history, the issues 
that brought on the war — slavery and states 1 rights — 
continued to plague the nation in one form or an- 
other for a century, and strong feelings in some sec- 
tions have lasted nearly as long. 

No, the meaning of events at Appomattox gains 
nothing from a rationalization of a war responsible 
for the deaths of more than half a million Ameri- 
cans — a greater number than we lost in both World 
Wars. Significantly, most of the visitors are not even 
Civil War enthusiasts. They come to Appomattox 
because they intuitively realize that this was one of 
the great watersheds in American history, a place 
like Valley Forge and Yorktown that one simply 
must see because it is a part of the American heri- 
tage. It is a place to re-examine our past — and to 
learn something about ourselves as well. 


The Surrender 

Victorious Union &0diers, 

acting as a pro vpst guard, 

and a few local citizens stand 

in front of the court hoj^sg, the 

sumrm>r after the surrender. ' 


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The Reestablishment 
of Peace and Harmony 


By Joseph P. Cullen 





Tv. : ^v;-^r- 

With malice toward none; with char it v for 
all; with firmness in the right, as God 
gives us to see the right, let us strive on to 
finish the work we are in; to bind up the 
nation's wounds; to care for him who shall 
have borne the battle, and for his widow, 
and his orphan — to do all which may 
achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting 
peace, among ourselves, and with all 

Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural, 1865 

The Civil War was a major turning point in American 
history and one of the most traumatic experiences 
this nation has ever faced. Whether or not this frat- 
ricidal strife was inevitable, the crisis that brought 
it about was, and the fact that it was not solved short 
of war is still our greatest national tragedy. 

But the nation endured, and when Gen. Robert 
E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia 
to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court 
House, Virginia, on April 9, 1865, signifying for all 
practical purposes the end of the war, the world 
learned that this modern democratic republic could 
survive violent internal dissension and rise above it 
to become a great nation, a nation that may well be, 
in President Lincoln's words, "the last best hope of 
The End Begins The end was slow in coming, however. For almost 

ten months Grant's Federal forces had besieged 
Lee's Confederates in the city of Petersburg. 
Throughout the fall and winter of 1864-65 Grant had 
gradually cut off Lee's supply lines from the south. 
On April 1 the siege was finally broken when the 
Confederate right flank crumbled at Five Forks, and 
the next night Lee withdrew and headed west looking 
for supplies and hoping to hook up with Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston's force retreating north through the 

After four long years of death, disease, and destruc- 
tion, the Civil War was finally coming to an end in 
an obscure little village in Virginia's hinterland, Ap- 


pomattox Court House. The village was relatively 
new, having been authorized in 1845 by the State 
legislature as the seat for the new county of Appo- 
mattox. The courthouse was a dignified two-story 
brick structure surrounded by a grass square and 
board fence and encircled by the Richmond-Lynch- 
burg stage road. Scattered about the courthouse 
were a handful of houses, a store, a jail, law offices, 
outbuildings, and the necessary tavern for weary 
travelers from Richmond, about 145 kilometers (90 
miles) to the east, and Lynchburg, 35 kilometers (22 
miles) to the west. The surrounding area was mostly 
farmland, a gently rolling country of open fields, soft 
ridges, and quiet woods. 
The McLean Family The most impressive home in the village, a large 

two-story brick house surrounded by a neat yard of 
shrubbery and flowers, was owned by Wilmer 
McLean. It was close to the courthouse and set back 
from the road. A brick walk led up to wide steps and 
a full-length porch across the front, shaded by locust 
trees. McLean, a short stout man, and his family 
were strangers to these parts, war refugees from 
northern Virginia actually. After the firing on Fort 
Sumter, South Carolina, in April 1861 that opened 
the war, the first major battle was fought near Man- 
assas, Virginia, in July and the McLean home had 
been part of the battlefield. A year later a second 
battle was fought in the same area. This proved too 
much for McLean; he decided to move. An expe- 
rienced merchant, he intended to trade in sugar, sure 
to be a scarce commodity in war time. He wanted 
a place where his family would be safe because of 
the long and frequent trips away from home that his 
trade would require, a place where there was no 
likelihood that either army would ever appear. So 
he purchased the Raine home, built in 1848, in Ap- 
pomattox Court House, and in 1863 moved his family 
to this out-of-the-way hamlet in Central Virginia 

In the woods just northeast of Appomattox Court 
House on the cool Saturday night of April 8, 1865, 
a campfire burned low. The halfhearted flames from 
some burning rails cast weird shadows among the 
silent trees. The sounds of horses at their pickets 
rode on the thick night air. 

The camp was spartan in character, hardly rec- 
ognizable as that of Gen. Robert E. Lee, since 1862 
commander of the Army of Northern Virginia and 


The Virginia Campaign of 1864 

As 1864 began neither North 
nor South controlled more or 
less territory in Virginia than 
it had held at the beginning of 
the war. Lee's Army of 
Northern Virginia still stood 
between Washington and 
Richmond. When Grant took 
command of all Union armies 
and joined Meade and his 
Army of the Potomac in the 
field he was determined to 
break this stalemate, and he 
reasoned that it could only be 
done by destroying the Con- 
federate Army. So when 
Grant crossed the Rapidan 
River west of Fredericksburg 
on May 4, 1864, he was de- 
termined to attack Lee again 
and again until he either de- 
stroyed or captured the Con- 

The first engagement took 
place in a tangled, densely 
overgrown stretch of country 
west of Fredericksburg known 
as the Wilderness. Grant had 
hoped to get his large army 
through the inhospitable 
countryside before clashing 
with Lee, but Lee knew that 
he had fewer troops and that 
they had best attack Grant 
where he would be unable to 
maneuver the Union force. 
For two days they fought, giv- 
ing and gaining little ground. 
The armies then separated 
and Grant began to move. 
But instead of heading back 
across the Rapidan as every 
other Federal commander had 
done, Grant sidestepped to 
the left and headed southeast. 
He hoped to place the Union 
Army between Richmond and 
Lee. Lee would have no 
choice but to attack Grant to 
prevent his moving on Rich- 
mond, for the loss of the 
Confederacy's capital, though 
it was not the primary Union 
objective, would be a psycho- 

logical blow the Confederacy 
could ill survive. 

That was the theory. The 
reality of the events worked 
out a little differently, for Lee 
realized what Grant was 
doing. The Confederates 
moved out, too, and managed 
to get ahead of the Federals 
and establish themselves at 
Spotsylvania Court House. 
They forced Grant to do the 
attacking, and the fighting 
continued for 12 days. On 
May 12 more than 12,000 
men on both sides fell in es- 
pecially fierce fighting. Yet it 
was all inconclusive; no one 
advanced and no one re- 
treated. Grant just kept side- 
stepping to the southeast. On 
the 19th the armies disen- 
gaged and Grant began to fol- 
low a more southerly course 
while Lee tried to stay be- 
tween him and Richmond. 

As the two armies moved to- 
ward Richmond they almost 
daily would bump into each 
other and a small fight would 
flare up. Of these skirmishes, 
the clashes at North Anna 
and Totopotomoy Creek were 
the costliest in men and mate- 
riel. And again neither side 
gained any real advantage 
over the other. 

On the second day of June, 
the two armies faced each 
other at Cold Harbor, a tiny 
crossroads that controlled an 
approach to Richmond. Bad 
communications delayed the 
Union attack for one day, 
giving the Confederates time 
to dig trenches that in the end 
could never be stormed. By 
the 12th Grant realized he 
could not get at Lee or Rich- 
mond, so he took the whole 
army across the James River 
and headed toward Peters- 

burg. The defenses of Peters- 
burg were slight, and it was 
one of the great missed 
chances of the Civil War that 
the town was not immediately 
taken. Union delays enabled 
the Confederates to come up 
in full force, and the siege of 
Petersburg, which would last 
until the end of March 1865, 
began. And once the with- 
drawal from Petersburg be- 
gan, the Army of Northern 
Virginia had only nine days 
left until surrender at Appo- 
mattox Court House. 

recently appointed commander of all Confederate 
land forces. "There was no tent there," Gen. John 
Gordon remembered, "no table, no chairs, and no 
camp-stools. On blankets spread upon the ground 
or on saddles at the roots of trees, we sat around the 
great commander." The wagons with the camp 
equipment had been lost or captured. 
Last Council of War Lee had called a council of war of his remaining 

top commanders to discuss what action should be 
taken to extricate what was left of the Army of 
Northern Virginia from its present perilous position, 
and they looked at him anxiously. In the flickering 
firelight he looked older than his 58 years, his full 
beard and hair completely gray, and his dark brown 
eyes sunk deep in their sockets. Short-legged but 
long of body, he was above average height and 
seemed taller in the saddle. Though racked with 
rheumatic pain, he held himself erect, his broad 
shoulders braced. He was wearing his usual uniform, 
a plain gray long coat with the three stars of his rank, 
always buttoned up, without gold lace or fancy bufi 
facings, a soft dark hat, and high boots. Handsome 
and dignified in appearance, his mere presence com- 
manded respect. He was a quiet, contemplative per- 
son. He had once stated that he was "always looking 
for something," and as a young officer in Texas had 
written: "I walk alone with my thoughts." 

He had two priceless gifts for a military career — 
patience with the weaknesses of men and unforeseen 
circumstances, and a rare ability to understand and 
lead people. Neither jealous nor unduly ambitious, 
he imparted a strong sense of authority and serene 
calm; his self-control was awesome and contagious. 

Now he talked quietly to the officers gathered 
around him, including his immediate staff, Generals 
John B. Gordon and James Longstreet, commanders 
of the only two infantry corps remaining; Gen. Wil- 
liam Pendleton, who arrived late, his chief of artil- 
lery; and his nephew, Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, cavalry 
commander. His face showed the strains of fatigue 
as he explained that he had recently exchanged let- 
ters with Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, commander of all 
Federal land forces, concerning the subject of sur- 
render. The initiative had come from Grant, he was 
careful to explain, and he had requested only the 
terms upon which Grant would insist. Grant had 
replied that he would insist on only one condition: 


"that the men and officers surrendered shall be dis- 
qualified for taking up arms again against the Gov- 
ernment of the United States until properly 

While he talked the signs about them were omi- 
nous. The glow from thousands of Federal campfires 
was reflected in the night sky in an almost complete 
The Options Still Open circle around them. The talk then evolved into a 

discussion of what options remained. Some sug- 
gested breaking up into guerrilla bands to continue 
the fight in the mountains; others wanted to try to 
break through the ring of blue-clad soldiers; a few 
suggested surrender. 

Lee listened calmly to the flow of conversation, 
staring intently into the fire as the smoke curled 
gently upwards, slowly disappearing into the dark- 
ness of night. Years ago he had advised someone that 
he "considered the character of no man affected by 
a want of success, provided he has made an honest 
effort to succeed. ,, His eyes now had a sad, far-away 
look, as if he might be thinking of that philosophy. 
He knew it was the end; had probably known for 
some time, in fact, although he had kept those 
thoughts to himself. 

It had become evident in Petersburg during the 
winter. In June 1864 when he had stopped the Fed- 
eral drive on Richmond at Cold Harbor, Grant had 
bypassed Richmond, crossed the James River and 
moved against Petersburg, 37 kilometers (23 miles) 
to the south, a major Confederate transportation 
base. Lee had countered the move but in the process 
had become besieged in Petersburg for almost ten 
months where his troops had nearly starved and 
death, disease, and desertions had relentlessly re- 
duced and demoralized the once proud Army of 
Northern Virginia. In Richmond he had pleaded 
with the Confederate Congress for supplies for his 
ragged men, but met with indifference. In a rare 
outburst of emotion he told his son, "I have been 
up to see the Congress and they do not seem to be 
able to do anything except to eat peanuts and chew 
tobacco, while my army is starving." As early as 
February he had warned the government: "You must 
not be surprised if calamity befalls us." And a dis- 
illusioned soldier had written, 'There are a good 
many of us who believe this shooting match has been 
carried on long enough. A government that has run 


Battle of Five Forks 

Amelia Court House 

out of rations can't expect to do much more fighting, 
and to keep on is reckless and wanton expenditure 
of human life. Our rations are all the way from a 
pint to a quart of cornmeal a day, and occasionally 
a piece of bacon large enough to grease your plate." 

Taking advantage of superior numbers and sup- 
plies, Grant had gradually extended his forces 
around Petersburg until the thin gray line had finally 
broken on April 1 at Five Forks. In desperation Lee 
had abandoned Petersburg the next night, and 
marched westward thus forcing the evacuation of 
Richmond. His immediate objective was Amelia 
Court House, about 64 kilometers (40 miles) from 
Petersburg, where rations were supposed to be de- 
livered. From there he had hoped to turn south and 
follow the Richmond and Danville Railroad to Dan- 
ville and then link up with Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's 
Confederate force in North Carolina, hard pressed 
by Gen. William T. Sherman's Federal army. 

After the long dreary months of siege warfare, the 
men had been glad to get out of the trenches. "Once 
more in the open field," Gen. A. L. Long noted, 
"they were invigorated with hope, and felt better 
able to cope with their powerful adversary." But to 
many it was already the end. "Soon as Richmond 
fell," one Virginian admitted, "I came home ... I 
didn't wait for Lee's surrender. Thousands did the 
same. We knew that if Richmond fell, the war would 
be removed from Virginia, and we had no notion of 
going to fight in other states." There were other 
indications, too, of the coming dissolution of the 
Confederate force. "There were increased signs of 
demoralization and disintegration all along the roads," 
Dr. John H. Claiborne noted. "Soldiers whom I had 
known for steadiness and courage were straggling 
and sleeping, unarmed and apparently uncon- 
cerned. . . . Officers seemed to be doing the same 

Then disaster struck. Lee had reached Amelia 
Court House April 4 only to find ordnance supplies 
but no rations. And for once he had lost his self- 
control. "The failure of the supply of rations com- 
pletely paralyzed him," John Esten Cooke, a nov- 
elist traveling with the army, noted. "An anxious 
and haggard expression came to his face." Through 
some bureaucratic blunder the desperately needed 
rations had not arrived. Realizing that Grant's forces 


were following close behind and also racing along 
his flank trying to get ahead of him to cut off his 
retreat to the south, Lee still had to spend a whole 
day here foraging for subsistence for his horses and 
men. "The delay was fatal," he wrote later, "and 
could not be retrieved." Turning south he proceeded 
the next day to follow the railroad toward Danville 
only to discover the Federals in force just 11 kilo- 
meters (7 miles) down the road at the hamlet of 
Jetersville. Forced to turn west again, he headed 
toward Lynchburg, hoping to pick up supplies at 
Farmville on the Southside Railroad. 

Starvation was now a real possibility. Some sol- 
diers stole the corn intended for the horses. "It was 
parched in the coals, mixed with salt, stored in the 
pockets and eaten on the road. Chewing the corn 
was hard work. It made the jaws ache, and the gums 
so sore as to cause almost unendurable pain." And 
there was little time for rest if they were to keep 
ahead of the hard-driving enemy. "The march was 
almost continuous, day and night," Pvt. Carlton 
McCarthy remembered, "and it is with the greatest 
difficulty that a private in the ranks can recall with 
accuracy dates and places. Night was day — day was 
night. There was no stated time to sleep, eat or rest, 
and the events of morning became strangely inter- 
mingled with the events of evening." 
Battle of Sailor's Creek Then on April 6 the Federal advance force had 

caught up with a portion of the Confederate Army at 
Sailor's Creek, a tributary of the Appomattox River, 
inflicting more than 7,700 casualties and capturing 
eight Confederate generals, including Lee's son, 
Custis. Observing the action from a vantage point, 
Lee was heard to murmur in despair, "My God, has 
the army been dissolved." But the remnants contin- 
ued on, reaching Farmville the next day, and for the 
first time since leaving Petersburg some troops were 
issued rations. Time to enjoy them, however, was 
denied by the relentless foe. Lee had wanted to place 
the Appomattox River between himself and the 
Union Army. But the unsuccessful attempt at burn- 
ing the bridges over the river had given him little 
advantage. After marching north for about eight 
kilometers (five miles), he swung west again. Mean- 
while the Federals raced along the railroad route for 
the supplies at Appomattox Station that the Confed- 
erates were hoping to reach. 

continues on page 45 39 

Appomattox Court House, Virginia 

The village of Appomattox 
Court House continued on in 
its quiet ways after the sur- 
render. This photograph was 
taken in 1890 from close to 
the small Confederate ceme- 
tery west of the village. The 

Richmond-Lynchburg Stage 
Road is in the foreground. In 
just a few short years the vil- 
lage would change drastically, 
for in 1892 the courthouse 
burned and the next year the 
McLean House was disman- 

tled. The town became even 
quieter after those two dra- 
matic events. 








4? </ 





■ : : 









1 8 


, *- 


Mti4iitriinbuutHJiwJ||Ti|i'l | ||l'^' | '" i TiTnTMj|ILi>'' ll 'H^r ■* tt ^' ' 




T '^"I'-Mil.. 

Around 1880 this is how Ap- 
pomattox Court House looked 
from the east (bottom). The 
buildings on the right are Wil- 
liam Rosser's house and shop, 
now gone. 

What brought the Confeder- 
ate and Union troops to Ap- 
pomattox Court House was 
the Confederate plan to get 
supplies from the railroad 
passing through Appomattox 
Station. Timothy O'Sullivan, 
one of the leading 19th-cen- 
tury photographers, took this 
photograph of Appomattox 
Station (top) in August 1865. 


,* ■■*«'^fc*ia* 

Timothy O'Sullivan captured 
the McLean family on the 
front porch of their home 
(top) in August 1865. 

One of the wonderful things 
about 19th-century photogra- 
phers was that they tried to 
get as much into their picture 
as possible. The result is a 
remarkable record of the way 
things were. Here we have 
Clover Hill Tavern intact 
(bottom) with its barroom to 
the right and the dining room 
wing to the left and a fair 
number of local citizens, all 
in their Sunday best, out in 


:-r..r r-„- 







JSte *** 



**■,* * 

-. ' y% 

■ " < , 1 

wiW. -4r* 

On April 7. the Confederates 
tried to burn the two bridges 
over the Appomattox Rivet- 
east of Farmville. The rail- 
road bridge, known as High 
Bridge I left) was partially 
destroyed, but the wagon 
bridge below was not. This 
allowed the Federal II Corps 
to cross in pursuit of Lee s 
army. The brick piers still 
stand but are on private 

Lee's Dilemma 

Grant's Situation 

And so in the twilight of April 8 the battered rem- 
nants of the Army of Northern Virginia, hungry, 
exhausted, and dispirited, had come to Appomattox 
Court House. 'The confusion exceeded anything I 
had ever witnessed in the army," wrote Lt. J. Cald- 
well of South Carolina. "Wagons and artillery were 
crowded on either side of the road, and struggling 
cavalry and infantry thronged about or wandered 
loosely over the fields. . . . Despite the disorgani- 
zation of troops there was little movement or noise 
of any description. A horrible calm brooded over us 
. . . . "' Another officer, Col. M. Thompson, noted 
that "The few men who still carried their muskets 
had hardly the appearance of soldiers — their clothes 
all tattered and covered with mud, their eyes sunken 
and lusterless, and their faces peaked and pinched 
from their ceaseless march through storm and sun- 
shine without food or sleep. " 

Around the campfire that night Lee and his staff 
were well aware of the critical situation. The glow 
of the campfires to the southwest told them that the 
enemy now held Appomattox Station. The discus- 
sion lasted until near midnight. Refusing yet to yield 
to the inevitable, it was finally decided to make one 
last attempt in the morning to break through the 
force in front, despite the fact that Lee had probably 
less than 20,000 effective armed men and was faced 
by more than 60,000. If it was merely Federal cav- 
alry, then Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry and Gordon's vet- 
eran infantrymen should be able to brush it aside so 
a perilous dash could be made toward Danville. 
Longstreet would protect the rear. Lee acquiesced 
in this decision, not from any real hope of success, 
but rather to appease his officers, most of whom did 
not want to give up without one last effort. 

As General Gordon rode back to his headquar- 
ters, he realized he had no orders as to how far he 
should go if he did succeed in breaking out in the 
morning. He sent a staff officer back to inquire. 
"General Gordon wants to know if you have any 
orders as to where he should halt tomorrow night?" 
Lee managed a wan smile. "Yes," he said, "Tell him 
that I'd be glad for him to halt just beyond the Ten- 
nessee line." 

About 24 kilometers (15 miles) behind Lee's 
camp, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was spending a restless 
night at his headquarters in an abandoned farmhouse 


near the hamlet of Curdsville. While his staff slept 
on the floors, he tossed fitfully on a couch, one of 
the few pieces of furniture left in the house. Since 
the breakthrough at Petersburg, his headquarters 
had literally been "in the saddle" as he tried to keep 
up with his rapidly moving forces. A vexing head- 
ache, which had grown worse all day, made sleep 
almost impossible. "I spent the night," he wrote 
later, "in bathing my feet in hot water and mustard, 
and putting mustard plasters on my wrists and the 
back of my neck, hoping to be cured by morning." 

Earlier he had taken supper at the nearby mess 
of Gen. George G. Meade, commander of the Army 
of the Potomac which was pressing the rearguard of 
the Army of Northern Virginia while Gen. Philip H. 
Sheridan's cavalry and Gen. Edward O. C. Ord's 
Army of the James raced along the flank trying to 
get ahead of the Confederates. After supper 
some of the younger officers amused themselves at 
an old piano. Despite the headache Grant said noth- 
ing. "To show how really amiable he is," Col. Theo- 
dore Lyman of Meade's staff wrote, "he let the 
officers drum on the family piano a long while before 
he would even hint he didn't like it." A dispatch 
from Sheridan informed him that Gen. George A. 
Custer's cavalry division was at Appomattox Station 
and had captured most of the Confederate rations. 
"If General Gibbon and the 5th Corps can get up 
tonight," wrote Sheridan, "we will perhaps finish 
the job in the morning." 

In a few days Grant would celebrate his 43rd birth- 
day. For the past year, as general-in-chief of all the 
armies of the United States, he had led 21 corps and 
Grant's Background 18 military departments, a total of more than 500,000 

men. His philosophy of war was uncomplicated. 
"The art of war is simple enough," he once stated. 
"Find out where your enemy is. Get at him as soon 
as you can. Strike at him as hard as you can, and 
keep moving on." A Midwesterner from Ohio, he 
was generally looked down on by the more polished 
Eastern officers who regarded his theory of warfare 
as too crude and simplistic. Confederate General 
Longstreet, however, when he learned of Grant's 
appointment, had warned his fellow officers: "That 
man will fight us every day and every hour till the 
end of the war." 

Slightly taller than medium height, Grant was not 


Lincoln's Support 

Lee Refuses to Surrender 

impressive physically. Round-shouldered with a 
slovenly posture, chestnut-brown hair and beard, his 
favorite dress was a private soldier's uniform, seldom 
buttoned up, with the three stars denoting his rank 
stitched on the shoulders. "He does not march, nor 
quite walk," an officer observed, "but pitches along 
as if the next step would bring him on his nose. ,, A 
plain, unassuming man of few words, he once told 
a questioner, "This life is too brief to be frittered 
away with explanations." Although seemingly a de- 
tached, private person, Grant nevertheless was in- 
tense and a master of self-control. One observer saw 
in his face "deep thought; extreme determination; 
and great simplicity and calmness." Another noted 
that, "He habitually wears an expression as if he had 
determined to drive his head through a brick wall 
and was about to do it." General Meade wrote his 
wife about Grant: "He is no ordinary man." 

From his earlier victories in the West and his un- 
sympathetic treatment of "war-profit-seekers, '" 
speculators, and crooked contractors, Grant had 
made enemies. These people often had friends 
in high political office and they wrote them stating 
that Grant "can't organize, or control, or fight an 
army," that he was nothing but "a poor drunken 
imbecile," and that he was sure to "fail miserably, 
hopelessly, eternally." President Lincoln resisted the 
resultant political pressure to remove Grant from 
command and finally stopped all talk about it with 
his emotional remark, "I can't spare this man; he 

Later that night Grant's attempts at sleep were 
interrupted by Gen. John Rawlins, his chief-of-staff , 
with a second letter from Lee. While not yet ready 
to surrender the Army of Northern Virginia, Lee 
wrote, he would be willing to meet with Grant to 
discuss the terms for the "restoration of peace." 
Grant was disappointed; he had been hoping for sur- 
render. Rawlins was quick to remind him that he 
had no authority to discuss peace terms. The Pres- 
ident had specifically instructed him to talk only of 
military affairs and not "to decide, discuss, or confer 
upon any political question." He could, however, 
set the terms for Lee's surrender and Lincoln's only 
suggestion had been that the men be allowed to re- 
turn to their homes. Saying he would write Lee in 
the morning that he had only the authority to accept 


surrender, not discuss peace terms, Grant, extremely 
tired, again tried to get some sleep on the rough 

Outside in the fields and along the roads, Grant's 
soldiers were also trying to get some much-needed 
rest. One soldier believed they had "never endured 
such marching before.' 1 Another recalled that they 
had marched 68 kilometers (42 miles) from one sun- 
rise to another. Many had not eaten in 24 hours. Not 
all were that rushed, of course, particularly the heavy 
artillery that had to move slower than the infantry 
or cavalry. And they found the time for some inter- 
esting activities. "Gardening was a favorite amuse- 
ment as the army passed along," an artillerist wrote, 
"for it frequently revealed stores of food and liquor 
hidden in the ground." 

About ten kilometers (six miles) from Appomat- 
tox Station, the men of Gen. Joshua L. Chamber- 
lain's 1st Brigade of the 1st Division, 5th Corps, had 
fallen out exhausted for a brief break in their hectic 
march. A college professor, Chamberlain had joined 
the 20th Maine Infantry as a lieutenant-colonel, 
fought in more than 20 engagements, and now was 
a general. He had been wounded six times and would 
be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for 
gallantry at Gettysburg. He had barely closed his 
eyes when he was awakened by a courier with a 
message from Sheridan. Rising on an elbow and 
striking a match, he read with "smarting, streaming 
Union Infantry Moves Up eyes" the brief note. "I have cut across the enemy 

at Appomattox Station, and captured three of his 
trains. If you can possibly push your infantry up here 
tonight, we will have great results in the morning." 
Shrugging off his fatigue and stiffness, Chamberlain 
quickly rode to the head of the column. "Now sounds 
the 'Forward' for the last time in our long-drawn 
strife," he wrote. "And they move — these men — 
sleepless, supperless, breakfastless, sorefooted, stiff- 
jointed, sense-benumbed, but with flushed faces 
pressing for the front." 

Lee's camp was astir in the pre-dawn darkness of 
April 9. Some of the staff prepared a meager meal. 
"Somebody had a little corn-meal," Lee's aide, 
Charles Marshall wrote, "and somebody else had a 
tin can such as is used to hold hot water for shaving. 
A fire was kindled, and each man in his turn, ac- 
cording to rank and seniority, made a can of corn- 


The Exit Blocked 

Lee Rejects Guerrilla 

meal gruel, and was allowed to keep the ean until 
the gruel became cool enough to drink." When Lee 
appeared he startled them. "He was dressed in a suit 
of new uniform, sword and sash, a handsomely em- 
broidered belt, boots, and a pair of gold spurs. " 
Seeing the surprise on their faces, Lee stated quietly, 
"I'll probably have to be General Grant's prisoner 
and I thought I must make my best appearance." 
Without touching the gruel, Lee mounted and rode 
towards the front. 

For several hours Gordon's infantry had been 
marching past the camp. As the first gray streaks of 
dawn turned the landscape from brown to green and 
a heavy fog slowly lifted, they reached the village 
and turned into the open fields. In the village they 
saw the "whole cavalry force drawn up in mass, and 
the troopers apparently asleep mounted. The fields, 
gardens and streets of the village were strewn with 
troops, bivouacking in line of battle." But then the 
skirmishers went out and the troops moved forward, 
pushing the dismounted Federal cavalry back. For 
a brief moment the road to escape seemed to be 
open. Then a mass of blue-clad infantry appeared. 
"In a few minutes the tide turned; the incoming wave 
is at flood; the barrier recedes," General Chamber- 
lain wrote. "Their last hope is gone. It is the end!" 

Lee sent a staff officer to Gordon to ask if he could 
cut his way through the Federal force. Gordon re- 
plied, "Tell General Lee I have fought my corps to 
a frazzle, and I fear I can do nothing unless I am 
heavily supported by Longstreet's corps.' But 
Longstreet's corps in the rear was being hard pressed 
by Meade and the rest of the Army of the Potomac. 
So when Lee received Gordon's message he said 
dejectedly, "Then there is nothing left me to do but 
to go and see General Grant and I would rather die 
a thousand deaths." Col. E. P. Alexander suggested 
that instead he "order the army to disperse, and, 
every man for himself, to take to the woods and 
make his way either to Johnston's army in Carolina, 
or to his home, taking his arms, and reporting to the 
governor of his State." But Lee would have none of 
that. He believed it was time now to heal the wounds, 
not open fresh ones. He patiently explained to those 
around him that if he ordered the "army to disperse, 
the men, going homeward, would be under no con- 
trol, and moreover, would be without food." They 


were already demoralized, he continued, and so 
"would supply their wants by violence and plunder. 
They would soon become little better than bands of 
robbers. A state of society would result, through the 
South, from which it would require years to re- 
cover." And as for himself, he said, "I am too old 
to go bushwhacking." He realized that the surrender 
of the Army of Northern Virginia would indeed be 
the end of the Confederacy, but he believed that that 
was now inevitable. "And, as Christian men, we 
have no right to choose a course from pride or per- 
sonal feelings. We have simply to see what we can 
do best for our country and people." Alexander later 
admitted that Lee "showed me the situation from 
a plane to which I had not risen, and when he finished 
speaking I had not a word to say." And when Col. 
Walter Taylor protested that history would have 
nothing good to say about the surrender of an army 
in the field, Lee replied: "Yes, I know they will say 
hard things of us. They will not understand how we 
were overwhelmed by numbers. But that is not the 
question, Colonel: The question is, is it right to sur- 
render this army. If it is right, then I will take all 
the responsibility." 
Lee Offers Surrender Lee then called Colonel Marshall and dictated a 

letter to Grant. "General: I received your note this 
morning on the picket line, whither I had come to 
meet you and ascertain definitely what terms were 
embraced in your proposition of yesterday with ref- 
erence to the surrender of this army. I now request 
an interview in accordance with the offer contained 
in your letter of yesterday for that purpose." 

Grant also was up early that Sunday morning. 
A staff officer found him at four o'clock outside 
walking up and down with his hands to his head in 
pain. The mustard plasters had done little good. 
After a quick breakfast at Meade's mess, he and his 
staff set off across the fields to get around the Con- 
federate force in front and so reach Sheridan and 
Ord near Appomattox Court House. 

The day was calm, an early spring day just nippy 
enough to remind one that winter had barely passed, 
yet warm enough as the morning wore on to warn 
of the coming of summer heat. The green buds on 
the trees and the bright new grass put the breath of 
seedtime in the air; the apple and peach trees pushed 
out their blossoms; the sap flowed warm in the lilac 


and magnolia. The land spoke of rebirth — and 

Shortly before noon, after a long, rough ride 
"through fields and across farms; over hills, ravines 
and 'turned out' plantations; across muddy brooks 
and bogs," they halted in a clearing to breathe the 
horses. A young officer from Meade's staff came 
galloping up at full speed, his coal-black stallion 
white with foam, and delivered Lee's note. Grant 
Grant Gets the News read it mechanically with no visible emotion. "There 

was no more expression in Grant's countenance," 
Sylvanus Cadwallader, correspondent for the New 
York Herald, noted, "than in a last year's bird's 
nest." Grant then handed it to Rawlins and said 
softly, "You had better read it aloud General." A 
blank silence fell on the group. Finally, one officer 
jumped up on a log, "waved his hat, and proposed 
three cheers. A feeble hurrah came from a few 
throats, when all broke down in tears, and but little 
was said for several minutes. All felt that the war 
was over." 

With Grant was his military secretary, Col. Ely 
Parker, a big round-faced, full-blooded Indian, for- 
merly chief of the Iroquois Nation. Grant liked to 
kid him about an amusing incident that had occurred 
some months previous. It seems a civilian who had 
not seen Grant since he left the west came to head- 
quarters and inquired: "Where's the old man's tent? 
I'd like to get a look at him; haven't seen him for 
three years." Rawlins, busy with paper work, jerked 
his thumb in the direction of Grant's tent. "The man 
stepped over to the tent, looked in, and saw the 
swarthy features of Parker as he sat in the General's 
chair. The visitor seemed a little puzzled, and as he 
walked away was heard to remark: 'Yes, that's him; 
but he's got all-fired sunburnt since I last had a look 
at him.' " 

Grant now dictated to Parker his reply, informing 
Lee that he would "push forward to the front for the 
purpose of meeting you. Notice sent on this road 
where you wish the interview to take place will meet 
me." Col. Orville Babcock was sent galloping through 
the lines to find Lee. Then the group mounted and 
moved out. When a staff officer asked Grant how 
he felt now, Grant replied, "The pain in my head 
seemed to leave me the moment I got Lee's letter." 

Babcock found Lee with members of his staff rest- 


Robert E. Lee's sword was 
presented to him by an un- 
known admirer from Mary- 
land, as an inscription on the 
sword itself testifies. Grant did 
not ask Lee to surrender the 
sword, and it is now in the 
Museum of the Confederacy in 
Richmond, Virginia. 

Lee's Personal Struggle 

ing on a blanket under an apple tree by the side of 
the road a short distance northeast of Appomattox 
Court House. After reading the note, Lee mounted 
Traveller, the big, handsome iron-gray horse with 
black points that had carried him safely through all 
the battles since 1862. Accompanied by Colonel 
Marshall, his orderly Pvt. Joshua O. Johns, Babcock 
and an aide. Lee rode slowly toward the village. 
When the troops caught a glimpse of him a cheer 
went up, but on seeing the white flag it quickly 
changed to a forlorn moan. Col. William Owen 
remembered, u We had been thinking it might come 
to that, sooner or later, but when the shock came it 
was terrible. And was this to be the end of all our 
marching and fighting for the past four years? I 
could not keep back the tears that came to my eyes." 
A soldier remembered it "was a mental shock that I 
am unable to describe, just as if the world had 
suddenly come to an end." 

The road crossed the Appomattox River, at that 
point no more than a gurgling creek, ascended a 
gentle slope, and took an easy curve into the village. 
After crossing the creek Lee halted and sent Mar- 
shall forward, accompanied by Johns, to select a 
suitable place for his meeting with Grant. As he 
waited patiently, what must Lee have been thinking? 
A lifetime of military service was coming to an end. 
The son of Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee of Rev- 
olutionary War fame, he had graduated from the 
Military Academy at West Point in 1829. As a colo- 
nel in the Mexican War he had earned a brilliant 
reputation. From 1852 to 1855 he served as super- 
intendent of the Military Academy, and later he ac- 
cepted an assignment with the cavalry in Texas. 
While at home in Arlington, Virginia, on leave from 
his post in Texas, President Lincoln then offered him 
the command of the United States Army in the field, 
which he declined, stating "that though opposed to 
secession and deprecating war, I could take no part 
in an invasion of the Southern States." A few days 
later, after much mental anguish, he resigned his 
commission, telling of "the struggle it has cost me 
to separate myself from a service to which I have 
devoted the best years of my life, and all the ability 
I possessed." He concluded by stating, "save in the 
defense of my native State, I never desire again to 
draw my sword." Despite the fact that he opposed 


secession and hated slavery — "In this enlightened 
age, there are few I believe, but what will acknowl- 
edge, that slavery as an institution is a moral and 
political evil in any country" — when Virginia seceded 
he could not answer, nor could anyone else answer 
to his satisfaction, his question: "how can I draw my 
sword against Virginia?" So his course was set and 
he cast his lot with the Confederacy, and now four 
years later he was coming to Appomattox Court 

The first person Marshall met in the village was 
Wilmer McLean, home from the latest of his fre- 
quent trips, As it was Sunday the courthouse was 
locked, so Marshall asked McLean to show him a 
suitable place for the generals to meet. "He took me 
into a home that was all dilapidated and that had no 
furniture in it," Marshall wrote, so "I told him it 
would not do." Resigned to the inevitable, McLean 
then said, "Maybe my house will do." Marshall 
agreed that it would do just fine and sent the orderly 
back for Lee and Babcock. When they arrived they 
entered the house and sat down in the parlor on the 
left of the central hall, "and talked in the most 
friendly and affable way," waiting for Grant. 

And so the war that began, in a sense, in McLean's 
front yard, was now about to come to an end in his 
front parlor. 

By early afternoon Grant and his party were ap- 
proaching the village. The reporter Cadwallader 
noted that, "the firing, which had been heavy 
through the early forenoon gradually died away, 
until it wholly ceased." As they came out on the 
open ground just south of Appomattox, both armies 
were in plain view. "The soldiers of each were in 
line of battle," the reporter wrote, "and ready to 
renew the contest on short notice. Officers were gal- 
loping in all directions, colors were flying, and it had 
more the appearance of a grand review than of two 
contending hosts." A closer view of the Confeder- 
ates, however, revealed "dirty, tattered, ranks of 
soldiers, none of them well clad, and nearly all of- 
ficers in fatigue dress." 

Grant was immediately escorted to where Sheri- 
dan and Ord waited. He recalled later that kk they 
were very much excited, and expressed their view 
that this was all a ruse employed to enable the Con- 
federates to get away. They said they believed that 

continues on page 71 


Personalities at Appomattox 

Appomattox was not an en 
but a point in the lives of th 
men whose stories aretotd 
here and on the next few 
pages. The primary purpose f 
of these accounts is to let yo il 
know what happened to the 
after the surrender. All but 

fiy^e of these men were at Ap- 
attox Court House. Jef- 
ergoruDavis was in Danville, 
irgmia; Joseph Johnston, 
If whom Lee was hoping to 
dlezvous, was in North 
lina; George Washington 
is Lee had been captured 


at Sailor's Creek; Abraham 
Lincoln was en route from 
City Point to Washington?" 
D.C.; and William Sherman 
was pursuing Johnston in 
North Carolina. 


/ *J^ *•." 

Mathew Brady photographed 
Grant in camp at Cold Har- 
bor, Virginia, in June 1864 
just before the siege of Peters- 
burg had begun. 

Ulysses Simpson Grant was 

born April 27, 1822, in Point 
Pleasant, Ohio. He graduated 
21st of 39 in the West Point 
class of 1843 and was the best 
horseman in his class. Almost 
immediately upon the cessa- 
tion of hostilities, Grant 
found himself embroiled in 
the political storms that 
swirled around President An- 
drew Johnson, on one hand, 
and the Radical Republicans 
on the other. Gradually he 
found himself being drawn 
into the Radical camp. By 
early 1868 it was obvious that 
Grant would be the Republi- 
can Party's nominee for Presi- 
dent. In the general election 
that fall Grant won handily. 
The next eight years in the 
White House were not easy 
ones for Grant. Critics 
charged that he appointed old 
Army cronies to offices for 
which they had no qualifica- 
tion. Fraud and scandals were 
commonplace during his 
administration. Yet Grant's 
tenure in office was not with- 
out merit. He calmed the pas- 
sions that the impeachment of 
Johnson had aroused. The 
amicable settlement of the 
Alabama claims against Great 
Britain led to a new period of 

harmony in Anglo-American 
relations. He brought the 
country through the Panic of 
1873 when regional and fac- 
tional tension could easily 
have been exacerbated. In 
May 1877, at the end of his 
second term, he sailed for 
Europe for a tour that lasted 
almost 2V2 years. Returning 
to New York City, Grant be- 
came involved in some busi- 
ness ventures with people 
who took advantage of his 
prestige. In the hope that he 
could leave some money for 
his family, he turned to writ- 
ing. It soon was discovered 
that he had throat cancer, and 
he finished his Personal Mem- 
oirs only days before he died 
at Mount McGregor, New 
York, on July 23, 1885. 

Abraham Lincoln was born 
February 12, 1809, in Hardin 
County, later Larue County, 
Kentucky. As President he 
had to prosecute the war to a 
successful conclusion, attempt 
to neutralize the actions of 
members of Congress who 
tried to meddle with his pro- 
grams, and deal with the men 
of his own Cabinet, many of 
whom believed they could run 
the country better than he. 
That Lincoln succeeded is evi- 
dence of his political acumen, 
shrewdness, tact, and great 
patience. His search for a 
general who would lead the 

army to victory took almost 
three years. In appointing 
Grant to the command of the 
United States Armies, he had 
to conduct a long campaign 
over the objections of politi- 
cians who had other military 
favorites waiting in the wings. 
The great tragedy of Lincoln's 
assassination on April 14, 
1865, is that if he had been 
able to carry out his plans for 
Reconstruction the wounds of 
the Civil War probably would 
have healed faster and 



About a week after the 
surrender at Appomattox 
Court House Lee allowed 
Mathew Brady to take this 
picture in Richmond. 

Robert Edward Lee was born 
January 19, 1807, in West- 
moreland County, Virginia. 
He graduated second of 46 in 
the West Point class of 1829. 
After surrendering his army 
Lee returned to Richmond, 
where he stayed through the 
spring and summer, for his 
home, Arlington, had been 
confiscated. The trustees of 
Washington College in Lex- 
ington, Virginia, offered him 
the presidency of their school. 
He accepted and in the fall he 
and his family moved to Lex- 
ington. Lee used his position 
as an educator and his actions 
as a private citizen as examples 
that he wished his fellow 
Southerners to follow. He was 
a strong advocate of educa- 
tion and repeatedly told his 
countrymen that the South 
could only prosper if she were 
led by well-educated citizens. 
He refused to follow any sug- 
gestion that former Confeder- 
ate leaders should leave the 
country and set up a govern- 
ment-in-exile. He obeyed the 
laws and urged everyone to 
do the same, arguing that 
Southerners' future lay in 
being good citizens of the 
United States. His voice was 
one of the greatest forces for 

calming the feelings that the 
war had aroused both in the 
North and the South. Lee was 
indicted for treason but never 
tried. In the spring of 1870, 
Lee's health began to fail and 
it was suggested that he take 
a leisurely trip south in the 
hope of regaining his 
strength. In the company of 
his daughter Agnes, he toured 
Richmond, Raleigh, Colum- 
bia, Savannah, Jacksonville, 
Charleston, and Norfolk. The 
trip was strenuous and did lit- 
tle, if anything at all, to im- 
prove his health. He died Oc- 
tober 12, 1870, in Lexington, 
Virginia. After his death 
Washington College was re- 
named Washington and Lee 

Jefferson Davis was born June 
3, 1808, in Todd County, 
Kentucky. He graduated from 
West Point in 1828 and was 
23d in a class of 33. Davis 
was elected president of the 
Confederate States in October 
1861. He faced a hapless situ- 
ation as the symbol of central 
authority in a government 
committed to states' rights. 
He repeatedly clashed with 
the Confederate Congress 
about the conduct of the war, 
and his own feelings that he 
was an exceptional military 
strategist created friction with 
lis generals. His relations 

with Lee alone seem not to 
have been subjected to these 
stresses. After the fall of 
Richmond, Davis was cap- 
tured at Irwinville, Georgia, 
and then imprisoned in Fort 
Monroe, Virginia. He was in- 
dicted for treason but never 
tried and was released May 
14, 1867. The remaining years 
of his life were spent in sev- 
eral ill-advised business affairs 
and his writing of The Rise 
and Fall of the Confederate 
Government. He refused to 
ask for a Federal pardon. He 
died in New Orleans, Decem- 
ber 6, 1889. 


Louis Guillaume 's painting al- 
tered the actual events for 
artistic considerations. Lee 
and Grant sat at separate ta- 
bles, but Guillaume chose to 
sit them at one table so that 

they would occupy the cen- 
ter of the composition. To 
the left of Lee and Grant 
stand Lt. Col. Charles Mar- 
shall and LU Col. Ely Parker. 

Besides Grant, Lee, Marshall, 
and Parker the other men in 
the room, from left to right 
are: Lt. Col. Adam Badeau, 
Lt. Col. Theodore Bowers, 
Lt. Col. Horace Porter, Lt. 

Col. Orville Babcock, Maj. 
Gen. Philip Sheridan, Maj. 
Gen. Edward Ord, Brig. Gen. 
Frederick Dent, Brig. Gen. 
Rufus Ingalls, Maj. Gen. Seth 
Williams, Brig. Gen. John 

Rawlins, and Brig, Gen. John 

Northern Leaders 

Joshua Lawrence Chamber- 
lain was born September 8, 
1828, in Brewer, Maine. He 
graduated from Bowdoin Col- 
lege in 1852. He left the 
Army in 1866 and was elected 
governor of Maine for one 
term. He was re-elected three 
times. He was president of 
Bowdoin College from 1871 
to 1883. Later he became in- 
terested in railroad and indus- 
trial ventures in Florida. He 
was surveyor of the port of 
Portland, Maine, from 1900 
until he died February 24. 
1914. His books include The 
Passing of the Armies. 

George Armstrong Custer was 

born December 5, 1839, in 
New Rumley, Ohio. He grad- 
uated 34th in a class of 34 at 
West Point in 1861. He was 
one of the youngest generals 
in the Union Army. Sheridan, 
reporting on the surrender, 
wrote that he knew of "no 
one whose efforts have con- 
tributed more to this happy 
result than those of Custer." 
Custer is, however, known 
more for his role in the In- 
dian Wars and the enduring 
controversy his actions in- 
spired. After the Civil War 
ended, Custer went west and 

spent the remaining 11 years 
of his life there. In 1868 he 
won a decisive victory over 
Black Kettle and the Chey- 
ennes. In 1874 he escorted 
1,200 men into the Black 
Hills; the discovery of gold 
there precipitated the Sioux 
Wars. In an action of these 
wars, Custer and about 200 
men were killed at the Little 
Bighorn on June 25, 1876. 
The news of the battle came 
just as the Nation began its 
Centennial celebrations. 

John Gibbon was born April 
20, 1827, in Philadelphia 
County, Pennsylvania. He 
graduated 20th of 38 in the 
West Point class of 1847. His 
post-war years were spent 
mostly in the West. He led 
the expedition that buried the 
dead at the Little Bighorn in 
1876. A year later he attacked 
Chief Joseph at Bip Hole, 
Montana, and later became a 
close friend of the Nez Perce 
leader. In 1886-87 he main- 
tained the peace in Seattle 
when anti-Chinese riots were 
expected. He died in Balti- 
more on February 6, 1896. 

His Personal Recollections of 
the Civil War, which he wrote 
in 1885, were not published 
until 1928. 


George Gordon Meade was 

born December 31, 1815, in 
Cadiz, Spain, where his father 
was U.S. naval agent. Meade 
graduated 19th of 56 in the 
West Point class of 1835. In 
1865 he was made com- 
mander of the Military Divi- 
sion of the Atlantic and 
shortly afterwards was given 
command of the Department 
of the East, both with head- 
quarters in Philadelphia. In 
early January 1869 he was 
named commander of Military 
District 3, which comprised 
Georgia, Alabama, and Flor- 
ida. Meade sought to admin- 

ister fairly and justly the often 
harsh Reconstruction Acts 
during his 15 months of com- 
mand. In March 1869 he re- 
turned to Philadelphia, still in 
the army, and served, addi- 
tionally, as commissioner of 
Fairmont Park. His support 
for and work at the park 
helped make it a masterpiece. 
He died in Philadelphia No- 
vember 6, 1872. 

Edward Otho Cresap Ord was 

born October 18, 1818, in 
Cumberland, Maryland. He 
graduated from West Point 
17th in a class of 31 in 1839. 
After the war he remained in 
the Regular Army until his 
retirement in December 1880. 
On a business trip from New 
York to Vera Cruz in 1883 he 
contracted yellow fever. He 
was taken ashore at Havana, 
where he died on July 22, 

Ely Samuel Parker was born 
in Genesee County, New 
York, in 1828. As Grant's 
military secretary, he recopied 
Grant's terms in final form. 
When Grant was elected 
President, one of his first ap- 
pointments was to make Par- 
ker, a sachem of the Iroquois 
tribe, commissioner of Indian 
affairs. Parker's changes and 
reforms, which aimed at giv- 
ing greater justice to Indians, 
earned him many enemies. 
He was tried by a committee 
of the U.S. House of Repre- 
sentatives on a charge of de- 
frauding the government. He 

was cleared, but, exhausted 
by the ordeal, he resigned to 
take a position in Wall Street. 
He made a small fortune but 
lost all his money paying off 
an associate's default. He 
later worked for the New 
York City Police Department. 
He died in Fairfield, Connect- 
icut, August 31, 1895. 


| 'fltj 


John Aaron Rawlins was born 
February 13, 1831. Through- 
out the Civil War he was 
Grant's chief of staff and a 
trusted and influential ad- 
viser. A continuing illness was 
diagnosed by the end of the 
war to be tuberculosis. For 
health reasons he accom- 
panied an expedition that fol- 
lowed the proposed route of 
the Union Pacific Railroad in 
1867. After Grant was elected 
President in 1868, he named 
Rawlins secretary of war. He 
died in Washington, D.C., 
September 6, 1869. 

Philip Henry Sheridan was 

born March 6, 1831, per- 
haps at sea. He gradu- 
ated 34th of 52 in the West 
Point class of 1853. He com- 
manded the Division of the 
Gulf immediately after the 
Civil War when the United 
States was seeking to force 
the French to withdraw their 
support from the government 
of Emperor Maximilian. Sher- 
idan's aid to Mexicans oppos- 
ing Maximilian and the 
French helped them over- 
throw their foreign emperor. 
In 1867 he became com- 
mander of Military District 

5 — Texas and Louisiana — 
where his administration was 
marked by a harsh application 
of the Reconstruction Acts. 
In 1870-71 he was an ob- 
server with the German arm- 
ies during the Franco-Prussian 
War and witnessed the rout of 
the French forces at Sedan. In 
1884 he became commander- 
in-chief of the Army, suc- 
ceeding Sherman. He spent 
the last months of his life 
writing his Personal Memoirs. 
He died August 5, 1888, in 
Nonquitt, Massachusetts. 

William Tecumseh Sherman 

was born February 8, 1820, in 
Lancaster, Ohio. He gradu- 
ated sixth of 42 in the West 
Point class of 1840. As com- 
mander of the Division of the 
Mississippi, his first post-war 
command, he rendered assist- 
ance to the construction of 
the Union Pacific Railroad. 
After Grant's election he be- 
came commander-in-chief of 
the Army. He retired from 
active service November 1, 
1883, living first in St. Louis 
and then moving to New 
York City where he died Feb- 
ruary 14, 1891. 


Southern Leaders 

Edward Porter Alexander was 

born May 26, 1835, in Wash- 
ington, Georgia. He gradu- 
ated third of 38 in the 1857 
class at West Point. After the 
war he was professor of math- 
ematics and civil and military 
engineering at the University 
of South Carolina, superin- 
tendent of the Columbia & 
Augusta Railroad, and presi- 
dent of the Savannah & 
Memphis Railroad. His writ- 
ings include Military Memoirs 
of a Confederate (1907). He 
died in Savannah, Georgia, 
April 28, 1910. 

John Brown Gordon was 

born February 6, 1832, in 
Upson County, Georgia. 
When the fighting stopped at 
Appomattox Court House, 
he was 33 years old and a 
major general. He was a 
political natural and entered 
politics only to lose to the 
Republican candidate in the 
1868 race for governor of 
Georgia. When Reconstruc- 
tion ended in Georgia in 
1872, he was sent to the U.S. 
Senate. He was re-elected six 
years later but resigned in 
1880 to take a job with the 
Louisville & Nashville Rail- 

road. In 1886 he returned to 
politics, this time winning 
the statehouse. And when 
his term expired he returned 
to the Senate for one more 
term (1891-97). His memoirs, 
Reminiscences of the Civil 
War (1903), are noted for 
their personal incidents. 
Despite charges that he mixed 
politics and business to his 
benefit, Gordon was a great 
favorite of Georgians. He 
died in Miami, Florida, Janu- 
ary 9, 1904. 

Joseph Eggleston Johnston 

was born February 3, 1807, in 
Prince Edward County, Vir- 
ginia. He was 13th of 46 men 
in the West Point class of 
1829. Johnston was leading 
the Confederate Army in 
North Carolina that Lee 
loped to meet. Immediately 
ifter the war he moved to Sa- 
/annah, Georgia, where he 
vas involved in the insurance 
business. He was a supporter 
)f Gov. Samuel Tilden in the 
residential election of 1876. 
n 1877 he returned to Vir- 
inia and made his home in 
Richmond. The next year he 

was elected to Congress as a 
Democrat; he served only one 
term. In 1885 President 
Grover Cleveland appointed 
him commissioner of rail- 
roads. He held this position 
until his death in Washington, 
D.C., on March 21, 1891. 


Fitzhugh Lee, a nephew of 
R. E. Lee, was born Novem- 
ber 19, 1835, in Fairfax 
County, Virginia. He gradu- 
ated 45th in the 49-member 
class of 1856 at West Point. 
He was commander of all 
cavalry in the Army of North- 
ern Virginia when he surren- 
dered at Farmville April 11, 
1865. He returned to farming 
until he was elected governor 
of Virginia, serving from 1885 
to 1889. In 1893 he was an 
unsuccessful candidate for the 
U.S. Senate. Three years 
later President Grover Cleve- 
land appointed him consul 

general at Havana. Lee 
gained great approval nation- 
wide for his conduct of affairs 
during these difficult years. 
When war with Spain broke 
out he was commissioned a 
major general, but he saw no 
action. After the Spanish- 
American War he was named 
military governor of Havana. 
He died in Washington, D.C., 
on April 28, 1905. 

George Washington Custis 
Lee, R. E. Lee's eldest child, 
was born September 16, 1832, 
at Fort Monroe, Virginia. He 
graduated first in the 1854 
class at West Point that con- 
tained 46 men. He was cap- 
tured with his command at 
Sailor's Creek in 1865. In Oc- 
tober of that year he became 
professor of civil and military 
engineering at Virginia Mili- 
tary Institute, a position he 
held until being appointed 
president, as his father's suc- 
cessor, of Washington and 
Lee University on February 1, 
1871. He stayed at Washing- 

ton and Lee until he retired 
on July 1, 1897. He gave 
the school several Custis fam- 
ily heirlooms and was gener- 
ous with many other gifts as 
well. After his retirement he 
lived at Ravensworth, Fairfax 
County, Virginia, where he 
died February 18, 1913. 


Armistead Lindsay Long was 

born September 3, 1825, in 
Campbell County, Virginia. 
He graduated 17th of 44 in 
the West Point class of 1850. 
Upon returning to peacetime 
activities he became chief en- 
gineer of the James River and 
Kanawha Canal Company. 
He was forced to resign in 
1870 because of blindness 
brought on by exposure he 
had suffered during the war 
years. President Grant, hear- 
ing of Long's disability, ap- 
pointed his wife postmistress 
of Charlottesville, Virginia. 
Despite his handicap, Long 

began work on his Memoirs 
of Robert E. Lee, His Military 
and Personal History. The 
book was published in 1886 
and benefitted from Long's 
service as Lee's military sec- 
retary and his close personal 
association with the Confed- 
erate commander. Long died 
in Charlottesville on April 29, 


James Longstreet was born 
January 8, 1821, in Edgefield 
District, South Carolina. In 
the West Point class of 1842 
he graduated 54th of 62. 
After the surrender, he be- 
came head of an insurance 
firm and a cotton factor in 
New Orleans. When he 
joined the Republican Party 
in 1869 he was socially ostra- 
cized and had to depend on 
Federal jobs for a living, be- 
coming surveyor of customs 
at New Orleans, U.S. minister 
to Turkey, U.S marshal for 
Georgia, and U.S. railroad 
commissioner. Claims made 

in his memoirs, From Manas- 
sas to Appomattox (1896), ag- 
gravated feelings of unpopu- 
larity toward him in the 
South. He died January 2, 
1904, in Gainesville, Georgia. 

William Nelson Pendleton was 

born December 26, 1809, in 
Richmond, Virginia. He grad- 
uated fifth of 42 in the 1830 
class at West Point. He was 
ordained an Episcopal priest 
in 1838. From 1853 until his 
death, with the exception of 
his four years' service with 
the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, Pendleton served as 
pastor of Grace Episcopal 
Church, Lexington, Virginia. 
After the war his parish was 
so poor it could not pay him 
for some time. His appear- 
ance in later years resembled 
Robert E. Lee's and the fact 

that Lee lived in Lexington 
led to occasional confusion. 
Pendleton came from a distin- 
guished family that included a 
member of the Continental 
Congress and a Signer of the 
Declaration of Independence 
and governor of Virginia. 
Pendleton died January 15, 

Walter Herron Taylor was 

born June 13, 1838, in Nor- 
folk, Virginia. He attended 
Virginia Military Institute. 
Taylor was married the night 
the Confederate troops evacu- 
ated Petersburg, and at war's 
end, he and his bride re- 
turned to Norfolk where he 
started a hardware business. 
In 1877 he sold his concern 
and became president of Nor- 
folk's Marine Bank. He was 
active in local affairs and rep- 
resented Norfolk in the State 
Senate for one term. He died 
in Norfolk on March 1, 1916. 



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■ ••>,., !.»•»■ .,.>.. . ,\ | *»••'.. MM *" ' 
*t . •'-'''. •>.• .,.; .i >>, , %> , j/ iVj« naiaut 

**■ .i s«*+ ;,» »j f j« gM i ..•• »*.■>•* nu MMMMl «^ 
■ .<*-.«. i>/ vvs w. tw itn»\ u» 'X»* i « i 
MDMHatTMJMl f*« .»'*»T 

? " 'i M"" "•••-• «J.l M «»!•«*( ««alirf«*WWf 
rW7 ! MMMM U<H *»»» »«*«« »M M :'»< 

I— »l tr*m tk* I;kM>^| ran. •!*• Onat 
•- >* iia kiit wi «m4 <o*Vi u4 nn of U» «* 
Wry <M «f»a, 6 • nmt Of Mm xviMj »»r» ■« 
ktnj MM •«• MMiMjM^ «h«i «t»< ••••■*»• 
Mf II M>— I »•* *-• •*•• 
MM«<IMIia imui 
MWMMAIj aKV «j^*t*« »*w Mi «■• Mr»»» 
Ml MM «f i>» •rosM.I.Wfeii 
(•■f.MtorlMiauaN, «••• 

»r iu &.«**. 5«t=»» uuat, wi »w«i< h«t Mm 

AalUkmMMllW t- UbMI >MMa> •*! u>.«> «r 
(•«•) CMB<MBK MUttt»«i'tl»|«rM*,lll «»<*S««|| 
•t i i» uM tM ;« * *• w . t« or nuf «~* TM 
•»* a*rr •»<<&>» «..t»<»j Js» «««*» t*l **• tM-Av n 
VtsSiMmt w> » atakiwltM nu« MM— | *f »*• *» 
•» > «f UM ««fM* ta im n«r *a4 u» « «k<_«T •* «■>» 
'.** taa b»ub niMa Unu of Ik* ».<-» «i.«| Oa 
ra*4 •r«*n.k'4»T ita tlrati MWMJ |i — il 
«• ta Urftt MRmM\ tWR* luKlt 
*%jh«t* •firtiai 
Ufnwuuii* abrai i t . ^ —a «Oaa Iha ru» 
«:» i4-'oi-.i »%i ta*»« v- «. >soi Hm ca>*ii iuu 
VU» «»«, a« «.'.u't w-i J iv*. am f...*j t«Mj«l 
l**« U •»■•-.» a* l>^»«aafa*a« t&M taJ !a»» <ei«r«« 
«r*a UM*f •• na m iiaul tc4 ««a »»» «r> «;•• (.» 
iMiattau] n.>!<<«ia"«u>a* kfOwMiMk 
»»i«u»ti»i» ica& tiMl aiVtv* T»»*i> teiaMJktistrva 
t «,-.'! yba aaVaof itemivi aa/alwl MM k, *» 
».( UM ra» ! ! ' ,' f » Ua wtuWf v>s fcnat .! a 
n« »'•».»»!« «,»••»», »a» «< "tii* ( t.-,af<sa 
I .v w. aan u *+ ia*' °i!»m arf Ibf r.y*y*. u«.<« vs-moa 
- ^■m«Mi «.I U» «.«*t,» |»*;^»*j/ fM an iImu al 

• •■a«a ii <*n»«i 

*fV» *«kU-\ c/.w«^> w» ■!« <ta» inca umi | 
»« i-' i fc»»n| • i-.*.* aal| **m.u%a>*» *i* 
v.-a it.» kaafftaajuwa afaaa ' \k» t»« .j i,fi "*:»•» 

« vs..- i &um a»» «a» A**-***** vj w<«^wnavaa 
«*-»4 taaaara *.j»^.-ii m * -S-* -*» :ia.i^»'a ««' t*» 
'' hiiui. .^i ia Al j-aiw •:.!*-•*• '-wr^ y«t« 
* «»>*i« |ki .> IwaJ rf ia* at i mua« a •*• |ka, 
*** -*-a i* *.*. « i ^»e iit^A.ri' i « 
t***4» iajaa*f MMMivmi 

» v» '».*<» ...... rn.. MMaftMMi I 

'••■' •« •»•»•« M IWt | ... ^t, ... .v., | 

• •" '• • • • ••»! ...j., a*s »v*.a. -*h 

M •» ••«»» ^ t ««.»«• Ma) f ... ,a» t±%\. Ita ■■« 
-. MftlmiM ; » ,, .... a*.,, .„, , ^ > , - ,, 

iiiiaauan i M ... >w< iai| v «wa/ia« Wat 
..».^«».«a«.» «.»..!.► ... j. ,tva •%,_», i, «,.«. 



Ml • —«f * I aa 

a «*( la '-» * »«a 
t * ■♦* «t»<w*v » M 

a> «i a'o i .it. v i,«i tM 

»• « »»■• 

It fh* m Mfliuai Iti mi ■ 
" ^fcuj .» i> . ha < 
' # tat III ..*.« ft v* 
. •• a^ ;^ " t* minium fiiMl 
w MM » i aM 

IMIf . ,« *i'it}~t» -i »»t 

.Ml »t4t •>•• aa»aa>«.ai BtaVtMai w 
a." •tMMMM| l«».ar utilailatlMN CttM 
at-« ■'tutitalVnii r-Mitui* .,.: m^<+~<»; t 
•*l*(i J ■ t «•». »« ,t« « . , r, a*.*, , H .< Oa aaj at 
IMMtMCM] ;'^ii>,« su.'»t^« 
MJ a»M • amtnat 
r>»« ,j »;»»,»! m «MM] **» «•»•> M»w»Wa», 
r.^t<.«»,« i.aai ifi> ttju a •» nttim ,av«* 
^tvit.;».<> a |t n n.u.11,11, „,» s>.analaa 
»••»«.. aMtoaaaM ncv m M tti kab a»««> 
&**** i i*m» m«»m£ ia 4«.ta«t.iii iv« raa^* *&i -■**^»"* 
t«M.t»lliitaa> J .I.Mi 
t trnm f«r< 
B <n* MM >. iir»» u MihiMa that im 
M* ** •> •"»,« »«<9*»l aa aiaat Ivtn •«• 
«_-nuM«» t».« usn .f w. , tali uu» ./ it* .tjti ttaA, 
<«ki .»« ma r«vw aal t>nlt<t> . Iraaaaal 

i.^^. * • | 

man . . 

.1 Ml ' 

' n ' n 

«car»t MH tau. au%t|« at aa; laa am awalara 
2 Strl "*** tWrt * S»! °Naaa« im»rm t «/ r=a» 
iTptaa*. aatiwai nas faanlaai MawMtflM 
■££SJ5»%H •mm •**>» ^MTIla, 
a l iaa ni. ti a tVr aaaat Ma* a at a HM aaruaa af 

«a« fmi|« i < mi| •AarlMMM MM tka taMkWM •< 

mvf,(aw«; Bat <var a«rawafM 'taSa l»« Mawt 

*t* It mm—tm tM W Mili — «*af »ia| IMM s» 

" . iwa- taf . *»aa^aM»iMaa«*jr -aa «if«« 

MJ tolMaj U«<VM MM MajMai asataa. 

^«*MMm,ii turn iRikiMiiui.tti 

Ml MMjaifi tn aliinij at ■ at) TM aa 

4H«aa Ik* 


;i#' tiaa tail 4 ^ i«at au^t a u..* 

a«M| t*r7t •'.■«» i 

.. ■*> via ! 

il Mt 

. ia«n 
ftaaMttatlaatlaa aaaMtIM c«. rataMMtMl a *e«i*»a 
• ■a*a»> ' •«• nM ikinui r-tt M ■•< aati» ata m 
inat'iai si.iaij.wt *mv..,ji atapalMUi 
Mai i ilM I rt*nara*li .aiitltaaalna. i«al*MJ »»<-^iv*|» ' 
tM* attain MMuatti tafwaav t»-a«n|t a at taaaa IHaa j 
a*; *l i-^ f ■ aat.-. taw ««* a «ia|U Mm i aaTaM ta «^t; 
«>' W va.»a/iaa*v *» »«.. «.A,.r» -I it« ami sf t£» 
itoi-m Tta> aAlan atut r»ai ta>t aim t*. ».«in Ua| 
<a^ f *ai -Sir «....%(. ia2 'a oav* » lti«tae>'*«. a^aaa Uat 
att .*»« ilai Imj aaVn« u»- . fnaaMuia « «» 
«ia*l" r 

Mat£Mt ^ . i 1 1 
*Mt1 tr» «r ait « -.aa ttM. 1 MM aC ktnat «aa»r 
Kl*J "Jt aVarl u tu ( wli<,ti -'in l^mjua 
ailift M tka *itias*a at aaa n^^-^aa. Ml aatt tfc* 
naatf. t» Ul t« « Vi« *< t»....j> auaXtaVM 
■artMf* kt um< ^» Mat ikaa •aoajl <o( t&t aw Tkai 

I'itlsa^a ka *i 


- '•*. MM MMtt *• aatM M 
B<l- iiiiffM»T»M- >»» Caakk kt MMkMatM 

tkMOt. Uaaaaaat iM Inn i l K M Mat 


•aa «.»,taav»»«» k a t talti t aat* 
laatavu OM aa«aral tka axlaaW «t»aa> 'uai»aW''» 
fc> Nuta, Cor Ma tat** TV lata. MnaMM iMaaa 
aktk at aaattt, *(Vt. a oauaaaa aatna ar titsny akaa 
*V; » <« tMManuiaf rakja-aVnl aM aaaJial <»a> 
kMMOaV* aa.f* ♦*aeaa*!a» 
IVt takwtaa) <***«« ajaavaata MM «b« Mam »aa»«aal 
aiMaa ta arfcl «»*»< twaa «»«*<»•! wMk« a*< it-taa. 
•Mktj *•'<» frtaatataaaai van at^awtM tMttka amt 
k> a>aajaam> M a n l a a laJ M>aa|>ai kw^aaratma 
lit aara ».»s<a a-«i «)<«•. au »-«»«> » aiaaaaaa' 
<ttv<ian ttal iaJataa M»i M ka rt a nk na j aa.1 baa 
t-<\ liaiT- rat nair«l*l i i[.fia>l lliitrnali I ak rinti — 
aM «M iRvaa *aH4«4 aa Irva Maa> laaia) atari Cha* 
a aa, ;4t «a H 4i kaav ta>.ala1M,<«Mr>««^ ia a i Mai|a<ia»'a»a 
tttta aMtiMayt cam at»» aomMia) 'ItiaaMi'm ta 
n-attai Mtaa *r tax aViara ta tka -W Taaaaaaa] 
I .aaa-f ■iliaiVll' atakiaiatatasaa aa tka a a Klr r . 
I aailiai a n la al araa aa >.-«aa* kv-aaaL aM tM 
uw;« ttuki latiatl ^a >la kaai»T Wwak iMl JMaV MM 
a*<i<«tiM -at Wtaaa t»a».» tSktt Ak UM 
aaaat uaaf Mat «aa> tmaaaatal 
»*a» tM« " 

MaMaaaaMkatkikat aaan-ttu .ia uaafa »ara mua* 
araaa. aMtr Mk Mat a MkV kcwat- akaaa, InnMrka 
Mat ktai M M aaaa aat. »»*l aaaai M «aa aa» 
naan raaaaMtitaaOiati "kartaaa (M iaM oat M 
k aaailVaa vaa aal Ma i ta aattaatfttr, MMA <a *kMM 
•iMHafu «.' ^.~* anaaaaVOt tkaja tta laTTa ati l aa 
^-*'- , *! l> «?M M •7%ml*>Z:.*m.mCit-Z« 
•aMraM m ■li/avt. aVtr aaaM. tu ati ia l *y » 
a «Vat t k jH i m aaaatt TM IM tafcat I tatl 

taaaata aataa. atjaa 

Ml *M *■,»*> taaa. baaaa kM aaaaW tka <a 
a»avat«""iH w*.*. «aa,i!al'.ii«» 
_ «f .■>•' « wn— I aM taal *%*>• tUM 
Mtf aaaaal Ma ktaa m ;t>> Oa rat><oa aa* uut lat taa 

— MMkM kaaatA." r*%-">M4 aaaiatatai avar 
—al i mail ta *M» t^a.»» » t^aaaaiaaaa 

•Mmul aa a-ajan aaai»»" 
_ a*4 iaa/ » • . at u-t-'t. * «a^ * i«aa 

MJM. «k rtmt.i lk>aata.'|ir« aVm 

, aaa^%'»*»llaatMM 

SM attaatkaa «-t taa > aait at in Ira. 

tM^**M*^aaataaafaaMaMa* Mi ■«««*» ■« fwtt, 

iom •** tkarara •-..t.-k>iifci aaatMy 

Mn* aa4 kXcaal '»ia\ »*» tuaaiiim 

na taa *ka. •»»• aMtalut kj ^ .. aa»t>. 

a af l ai l n aM l 1*4 awfaaakM t» *»»■ **•» <»•«« .* 

Ma taoawt *a ttnMkl rt* taatrkV..'' iwal ttat MIT 

aaa Una kaaf kaaa Wfi ataa ka tarn It A* H aaaut 

1 ar uti a| ISal alrtaHafl Hal tM uat,y.* <*" 

Ml Mrs aa ja«a4 la aaala tM ~ 

ar arian Ma MJfaV «a 
Atkytk *rtaa-MaM«| 

> tanatt aaaata af r—*-^»nf Taa ant? aaaavaa y*%s*4 

1 ta a atrattty. u> < ( uk aM Maial «ta »"*im tk naa 

! Maataia. <a*i» « -aat t lanua. at *• «»r| t.iaf ai-at^ 

laaautax »■■» tM Anal oa* M ianaa tka tvu. cu«M 

j aaa Mnaaaa * ■••aJtrr aaawa la> anataaAal 

■raaaaaa aa taa twtatan 

■aaaatal at u n. a Ijntn., ca* IS- ,Maia aalaiaH 

I *aai.« a» aaLt m tti l oa an Oa L f vaaw, l1m ^ 

•>X t taal la ua ta a la/t. aaMj 

a . 


Wtaa<lMTa<a» .far, kaaa tfa taya 
.aru taal Ml IM*M nan M*rraa MM* 


*nsa im arrrunaa 

OnAaa.1 «a) »» ua aaaait aa tka MA, Mat 
taaa aaa u«|«avui •maaj ta\ Mat, kaata* ataawi aaaaaa 
ataAaf p n*^ *ti< k| fr*>*& U'virva. • < MMM art* «na>* 
MjWMJMMl aaa MMM MM al ttla 
tea Mat* m. a^ik IM taaaaM • t«a«.. » fa* tM rrkaal 
kaa fetM i,aa> aj rt tka a-^ualai aM taal Mtaa ktA a 
iM|a» M ^* tka<i •aaiaaaa*! a'atax M Una a*i.u, 
a*J MMa t»*t mm ti,a»» »«i»a .« tM MM MM! 
•* aatn-aaf tkm ptu. ta tr»k ikn 

a-.jtaiaaa a 

TM l»f<|»!» *f aaara tr .aa. .-an nauatl of OeJ. 
a""" t'tatikM •* Tt»«.-»» ^i-aaaa, aat r4ar~l 
liwui.'',. i",i.l» • . » . a>A aM antatt a 
atitaiiait '&«» aj.aa«aa i, .>»..»i'.. aa«»»a«it*a 
tta> ua MJ a*a MM i,» j. «.,«.» auk tM miifliii 
af Hunai 

■ uawata MjM 

T*ia»tr kM tVaaatt* Man MfMaMf *a eta»»f»raaf 
aa-l »•• MMM fM * Uw a k*M 0. -••> tbi ai i.nrtal 
ts*» M na kaawaar, »» 'ca^i ><•> fr» -^ tM MMl IM 
«...»» m MrUJat mtmt a •» ••*»■ a.n;a*a) aM ifaa tat 
Mi f. r» t a il IM w aa M W a> • at i.iaarai 
aMaaai > a rant i w Ml numl • BtataiV a« wants Mat 
(a:il4 liis- •» . • t.. i ... *!,;.,.*• va apaaaabl *aMaia> 
li'.tiik i*a *.. .| anal .t M aiiMi t»v»*t. Ma 
rt • a#t '4i' 5w ... es.iiiAaiaaMX ta tl.. aaatnavirta »f 
) i.i.. t" nun • (itaam, mill faa»a aaaaal- -■< aiiataa 
Vtr, t'au'.v» 'M!..>Et ft i.V"» »i*,. u aaali ».«| 
aba.-4.ia ta^tM Iknaaaa. - -at at aa. . t tn. itt| aMakt'kt 
■■M TSar Matt u.> •»•«• Sa/aa 
taajatataa it.ta M* .'.ii faa.i 

I" ' aarta-a CT ilr . a. 

Tiamv-ta* Ml >.>-a aatKawa) a rtt .-rakta aacml far 
aa law, ky MM MaJ i.aj.aiui-, aa4 taa ta*UM 
latMaaaf IttawM '-a>* ~'"« l» Sm f.»«.a,' 
taaJ I Mi m i l •>* rnjwa | ; »an.ri Ttrta* !m ir.mW 
w»iB..'..^5ii iMMtajk tla a-wM tatt aaata a taaaar taaa 
••-»,.'.. aM a* MM MitaVa ««A IM Itllk «rr»» Mi 
M» **'a-i, aakMaj t^ n't.* a a L ataka ..- aaa'a 
a at M Mka U«n tkaaa ii>a cart-iry aM iJms. 
». -aa Nattartat a-aia aCrtkiaa) a tu a ata* ik«! <eMI 
M*| n i4>«i*ti TM rakala.. awfeaaaal at rat » a 
**-!**■ ',t •*»•*'!» »S<f laaj Ml <fni«Wu 

%.|||"l u> 

a»* 1/ata.a k-.-^a a* thv.** I» 
aa«> imh a iMl ... -..».• b ^> '• — «na UM 
l>lk|tx«aaalla»t . .... a.^ajpiaiiMi 

ft. . .... .-„»,^-, * . 

P r. ( an u * . ... i*aa*a i,^ ta* latiara 

(taa i •« aM|tn n w ,,, at-atatfn Mfwaala** la 
fant anLriai'.! . . .. al <■» |(» uaaaa] t/aa ' 

ia a im k t ia f| a., m-m r .j«a ft,i m. aa-' i»aa 
MM| a-aa iatta-aa>i..*riu»<mtM>ataakig 
IM Mi.. •«..•( r„. •,», „, ,< »a# MM Mi 
•** * ',**• t***"'aj, &-» M l«* taa atatm uut M 
a « ta t .a ».it aj .»..,.,., , a af»i*r nail 
tMl t n tctatin H. a* Siinj •.,,• i . a.i.,, 
laaaf*mal ua-a laa a a t l ai ta».» atank af tm\, aV 
If aa l*»r»i.Vi a ». r ..#,., ... i ._, . ...^ m I 

niiaiatokkMttal a* ii4 «^„^Ma «-»**. 
tr~» —aar».«.Tn. a. .> • .• mauaj •-, Mfla. tataaaal 
•"" • atv-Kaaaa, »...., « . ^« taa a faat -.»-*. 

um attM tara, ...t ta .... n. it. .Ma 1.1*1 t 

a. "•* rafatiaiti | *>*..». |^v Ml at tti - aaa- 
MaanaitM a*>il M t«arl tkaa MrrHaa t 

|M MI tM IMMJ «v » a !• ,.| arltn ia.kM k 
M (*-■ f-l**) aa. ^l l ..' . , Ufa-tM jf (Maa Uva. Ma 
a -. a*t.» "ii*. . tat p9i u,; t «aaa M fafaarl a. 
aa^af.waa^^arM'W.. aaf*tt| am iktal kr IMai 
aM . MM <*«.•*.• f . . a* tal aaa* taw ttaara MM I 
UlMt|aa.'<aiaaii>^.> ( aM tkat Ma 
tMa am M aatau|.«..< ukat ■ »■« . M ia IVIr la-att I 
rwa. Karrraf, aaa t .arrai ■». aM is* aaaat kM Mia 
Hat aMMM IM taitf., .,, ,. a. tM MM It. 
rtaraa l l - a maM a .^ «f takati^ taraaaa icjtaM 
M«U. tM IaM taakaHal Ka rriaa (atanl apn. 
aat IM aWrt a*! aata f « IM an* Ui 
t pw a#..»v.>.'« <** aa/ Mat a 
I. aiawa. |fi>> niau afi 
m Mar «.»- |« tM taiaMMm 

4a*nM*a!MaaraatrtM ki a ikka f l MM 

aaaaaa ka. at** a... Mt rrajM aM. mm 
MiUkataatiaata aa tM >«*..**, tta raaaf. al 
i*tn an. aam itar uau'aaa*jp]|i raw aa* M 

•Mtatal. aM katVM* 
IIW» a Majt&r waWMtaa a- it Oaaartj 1 1 mmi» 
a-i.-ai M Mft« fiM» kta. aa4 tmnataiVt 
lart;. M.iwla ott 14a*. Oaaal laaaaar.-*, al 
tawt, taiM Mat w. u. ts-a taanMiM «*»J* t>Mti 
•MM i**-mi%** Ml i'aaaaa ka* M-a kr-raUl M M 
t^arlf traaa kaak tn.aa 

Wk. .ta IM firafwiart a m *wta* 
la n H .-a It c* f.'!.. «f |> 

MM ta frrat al II 
iKaatl fan a alal 
•»►*#» aaa-».tj t . r»'.»~Sia|-a aiaj fctajtk 
•t>k Ka* k» ra ta.* laan^ara* Kaivaa-a* ta tf 
tM ia*«s» aat aa mn *' tMn ;aatu»a M vm» laai 
i.. it Malkf Matta, a*a taM katt* aa tMM at aai 
l-». hMMM «■'» taaiiu.t* taifiM M*->>»> 
aaa-ka IM raaat TM fatea »l I -a Mtaa* ti a la M 
Miti'ar.t ti* tii.ut. (.a!a, aavl tM .a|*ai 
fWttaM it^ alt-* aM. vatf 

nm n.a»a*«t«-* MMM> ^aai»,.ui .-**»» .aa in 
T".« ffcU aa^Ui* mi... » t^aaraa braal a-n It 
a. a ,•£* attM '.'..^ at. a*.iua at *i«. --aaaat 
T* . . «^«»< si aaa at» hi'. ..-. wua. aa V*>k «aa 

t»« (-«atf5 ta 

aaa l 1 * 
fa .'!-• SI 

im* at* 
'ka a*jr Tk 

1 1 it*. >i t-j.- taa 
M .if»-S M tk. la 
'. i**»* ^f I ^.i.u 


tawt aa ianXnVwail .'a tic/. »tr» taU***''/ • 

M a taaa JV.j taa-ta u f «t tkai Ua iatt *Ta «*€ | 
latanar. a -a. . .Matat, a*.l I S** IM it. aal Ikft i« | ], afce.l .tu J a voaarf artar M * lMr.Ml*atC*»f 
laal '-a: kaar at*, in* T.aka. '«•*. -aaa* M trt a»»| ! 
a*. Ma iia* .« 4'r*u a aM aat lira h i I T *at**M4* * i 
tk**t*> af »a» ittMxf cat tM. Oat. n tat MM iwfu, 
(■*•<* atajM>*Ml an* tM «iiMM*niati <a* itttatri Utaa 

U-» anaaata, «M kt a-ka* it tat rait la i 
latt a xl i taj ltl-»."*t a MM ay ..****" *a I 
tM *t jafaiani. raYfatnai a •;«« Mat ana 

ta.aalfc ttal a 
itnAaaM. s#^att*a* a auaaa Mai Mat as .**a»i 
au •f4at^*t|4ia|MalwarkM Caiaatt, CMr 
tarMM IM ta *»*»* a** ka t»»*» aat jtaa ajra ta* 
•aaa] . aaai « ta* aM** *Mt-M t»*ta. 
lar.m Ottawa 
.»Var>tt M * ' ' ■ * ta aaf 'i a a a MttMI' Mm aa ant m 
(M Mai it. aaa Ma* araara* TMa traaa M>*a>- at *ai 
ta«ai i ( i iu M aat H a* > i* M«| MH uta |.nMlia* aa* 
it " • |-tia a-ira t*t*raatitli aati **;a| a a .«» tf Ma t*M 
Ho ranaiist r»*iak» fe*.» Vta ..aajataa.^ ul tM 

Maa, j uatt ifcrt-a'a* aMta tab. iMur M 

Tg>M*ia«aiwr-ai aat* ta aaB raaatMM MaM 
IMa«MMaaatt>'i|UiMa«**M ttltllM 

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Newspaper Accounts 

These four items are news sto- 
ries taken from the New York 
Herald for April 14, 1865. All 
four reporters were with the 
Union armies as they ap- 
proached Appomattox Court 
House and saw various aspects 
of the surrender. Note how 
their stories vary on the same 
points. The last three are ex- 
cerpts that pertain solely to the 


Mr. S. Cadwallader's Des- 

Appomattox Court House, 
April 9 — 6 p.m. 

The glorious consummation 
so long devoutly wished for 
has at length been attained. 
The constant and unparalleled 
marching and fighting of the 
last twelve days has culmi- 
nated to-day in the surrender 
of General Robert E. Lee 
and his entire army to the vic- 
torious legions led on by 
General Grant. 

The size of Lee's Army at the 

The remnant of his army is 
variously estimated at from 
twenty thousand to thirty 
thousand. My own opinion is 
that it will exceed the outside 

Its Condition 

His trains have been terribly 
cut up and captured by us 
since the commencement of 
his retreat from Richmond. 
Besides these he has been 
compelled to abandon and 
destroy large numbers, until 
the remainder will fall below 
the usual allowance for such a 
force . 

His artillery has been suffer- 
ing the same depletion, and is 
cut down to a minimum with 
which an army of equal size 
ever moves. 

The Correspondence Concern- 
ing the Surrender 

A correspondence, looking to 
the surrender of Lee's army, 
commenced between himself 
and General Grant day before 
yesterday, as announced in 
my previous despatch. The 

purport of General Lee's first 
note was to ascertain the best 
terms on which he could sur- 
render his army. Gen. Grant 
is understood to have offered 
to parole the officers and 
men, and allow them to re- 
turn to their homes until reg- 
ularly exchanged. To this 
Gen. Lee seems to have de- 
murred. He at least tried the 
dodge of replying to this com- 
munication by requesting a 
personal interview at a certain 
place, at ten o'clock A. M. 
to-day, to arrange "terms of 
peace." As this was changing 
the question at issue and 
under discussion, and one 
which Gen. Grant had neither 
the inclination or the author- 
ity to decide, he replied in a 
note which admitted of no 
misconstruction, and which 
virtually ended the negotia- 
tions. On receipt of this Gen. 
Lee at once despatched an- 
other requesting a personal 
interview for the object named 
in Gen. Grant's communication 
of yesterday — viz: the 
surrender of his entire army. 

Where the Communications 
were received 

General Grant and staff were 
at General Meade's head- 
quarters last night, in rear of 
the Second Corps, where the 
flags of truce bearing the re- 
spective communications had 
been sent and received. Sup- 
posing all further negotiations 
referred to arbitrament of the 
sword, Gen. Grant break- 
fasted at five o'clock in the 
morning, and started immedi- 
ately for the extreme left of 
our line, held by General 
Sheridan, in the vicinity of 
Appomattox Court House. 
Consequently when the com- 
munication was received it 
was forwarded by Major 


Pease, of Gen. Meade's staff, 
who overtook General Grant 
about five miles from the 
Court House, between eleven 
and twelve o'clock. 

The Place of Conference Ap- 

A communication was imme- 
diately despatched by Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Babcock and 
Lieutenant Dunn, of General 
Grant's staff, to General Lee, 
appointing Appomattox Court 
House as the place of the 

The Meeting of the Generals 

General Lee was soon 
reached by flag of truce, and 
repaired to the house of Mr. 
Wilson (sic) McLean, one of 
the three remaining house- 
holders in the village. General 
Grant arrived about fifteen 
minutes later, and entered the 
parlor where General Lee was 
awaiting him. The meeting 
was very nearly a private one 
at the outset. After a few mo- 
ments' conversation General 
Grant's staff officers were 
called in and formally pre- 
sented. The conversation was 
sober and confined solely to 
business, excepting a few allu- 
sions to the past between Lee 
and General Seth Williams 
and perhaps one or two others. 

The Terms Agreed Upon 

The terms of surrender were 
soon agreed upon, reduced to 
writing and signed, after 
which Lee soon departed to 
within the lines of his own 

Correspondence, proceedings, 
etc., relative to the surrender 
have already been published. 

By the time the papers were 
drawn and signed it was too 
late to proceed to the formal 
ceremonies of the occasion, 
and further proceedings were 
postponed until to-morrow. 

General Lee 

General Lee was accom- 
panied only by Colonel Mar- 
shall, formerly of Baltimore, 
at present aid-de-camp on his 
staff, and Orderly Johns, who 
has served him in that capac- 
ity for fourteen months. Lee 
looked very much jaded and 
worn, but, nevertheless, pre- 
sented the same magnificent 
physique for which he has al- 
ways been noted. He was 
neatly dressed in gray cloth, 
without embroidery or any in- 
signia of rank, except three 
stars worn on the turned por- 
tion of his coat collar. His 
cheeks were very much 
bronzed by exposure, but still 
shown ruddy underneath all. 
He is growing quite bald, and 
wears one of the side locks of 
his hair thrown across the up- 
per portion of his forehead, 
which is as white and as fair 
as a woman's. He stands fully 
six feet one inch in height, 
and weighs something over 
two hundred pounds, without 
being burdened with a pound 
of superfluous flesh. During 
the whole interview he was 
retired and dignified to a de- 
gree bordering on taciturnity, 
but was free from all exhibi- 
tion of temper or mortifica- 
tion. His demeanor was that 
of a thoroughly possessed 
gentleman who had a very 
disagreeable duty to perform, 
but was determined to get 
through it as well and as soon 
as he could. 

He rode an ordinary gray 
horse, with plain equipments 
similar to those of our cavalry 
officers, and his orderly stated 
that this was the only animal 
he had here. 

He bivouaced last night near 
a place known as the "Stone 
Chimney," in a grove, and 
made his breakfast this morn- 
ing on a "corn dodger." His 
troops are even worse off. 

The Surrender a Surprise to 
His Officers 

No one but a few of his offi- 
cers suspected that he con- 
templated surrendering his 
army, until this morning. 

Mr. S. T. Bulkey's Despatches 
Headquarters Army of the Po- 

Near Appomattox Court 
House, April 9, 1865 

The Settlement .... 

General Lee was at the ap- 
pointed place of meeting half 
an hour in advance of Gen. 
Grant. He was accompanied 
by his Adjutant General, Col. 
Marshall. Gen. Grant was ac- 
companied by Generals Bar- 
nard, Williams, Rawlings and 
Ingalls, and Colonels Bowers, 
Babcock and Porter. 

Drawing up the Terms 

The terms were drawn up by 
Gen. Grant, written out by 
Col. Parker, and submitted to 
Gen. Lee for his approval. 
He suggested some slight al- 
terations regarding officers' 
baggage, which were assented 
to. Col. Marshall made a new 
copy, which was signed. The 
terms are the same as first of- 
fered by General Grant. 

A General Interview 

General Grant then sent for 
the remainder of his staff, a 
general introduction and in- 
terview was had. General Lee 
conversed somewhat with 
General Seth Williams, who 
was an old friend, but was 
quite reserved and sad. He 
was dressed in full uniform, 
with an elegant sword, sash 
and gauntlets. General Grant 
was in full uniform, with the 
exception of his sword. 

The News in the Army 

When the news was received 
in the army they were wild 
with joy and excitement. 
General Meade was cheered 


from one end of the line to 
the other. 

Mr. L. A. Hendrick's Des- 

Headquarters Fifth Army 

Near Appomattox Court 
House, April 9, 1865 

Arrival of Lieutenant General 

About two o'clock P.M. 
Lieut. General Grant arrived. 
The particulars of that inter- 
view only the participants 
know. The results are known, 
and they are all that could 
have been desired. At four 
P.M. announcement of the 
result of the interview was 
made known. There was the 
climax of human cheering. I 
will not describe it. It was 
cheers, not of exultation over 
a conquered enemy, but re- 
joicing at the probable close 
of war. 

The Interval of Armistice 

Such scenes as those pre- 
sented to-day have never be- 
fore been witnessed in this 
army, and never before has 
been such suspense and inter- 
est at stake. Our soldiers saw 
it, felt it, and looked it. Skir- 
mish line confronted skirmish 
line, lines of battle confronted 
lines of battle, cannon con- 
fronted cannon. Highest 
hopes hung on the interviews 
between the opposing great 
commanders of our great 
armies. Peace, long coveted 
peace, might follow this inter- 
view. It might end in resump- 
tion of hostilities, in fiercest 
battle, in terrible carnage. If a 
strange spectacle was that of 
our general officers conferring 
with the rebel general offi- 
cers, much stranger was the 
view of the two armies during 
the armistice. The two armies 
were plainly visible to one an- 
other. Ours lay on the east of 
hills from which the enemy 

had been driven. The enemy 
skirted a strip of woods in 
rear of the town. Through an 
opening on the left and rear 
of the town could be seen his 

Mr. John A. Brady's Des- 

Headquarters Army of the 

Behind Richmond, Midnight 
April 9, 1865 

The Conference Between Gen- 
erals Grant and Lee 

The final meeting between 
Generals Grant and Lee took 
place at the house of Mr. 
MacLane, at Appomattox. 
The meeting was eminently 
courteous on both sides. They 
had met to accomplish busi- 
ness, and they accomplished it 
in a straight-forward and sol- 
dier-like way. The minutes 
were drawn up on a small ta- 
ble, and immediately made 
out in proper form, and 
signed by the two generals on 
a marble topped centre table 
of somewhat antiquated fash- 

The Tables 

The large centre table on 
which the paper was finally 
signed was purchased by Gen- 
eral Ord for $50. General 
Custer purchased the other 
table on which the minutes 
were made out for $25. The 
only trophies left Mr. Mac- 
Lane were the chairs occupied 
by the two generals and the 
room itself. 

The Chairs 

Numerous offers were made 
for the chairs, but Mr. Mac- 
Lane steadily refused to part 
with them. Finally two cavalry 
officers, one of them a colo- 
nel, finding that they could 
not obtain the chairs by any 
other means, seized them by 
force and made off with 
them. They had endeavored 

to make the owner take 
money for them, but he had 
flung the proffered green- 
backs on the floor. After they 
had been gone some time a 
cavalry officer rode up to the 
house, called Mr. MacLane 
out, thrust a ten dollar note 
in his hand, and shouting, 
"this is for the colonel's 
chair," rode off in hot haste. 
General Ord and General 
Custer are both on the track 
of these gentlemen, and it is 
very probable that the chairs 
will be restored to their owner 

Appomattox Court House 

This town has now a place 
and name in history. Its situa- 
tion is in a sort of valley, with 
rich slopes of cleared land ris- 
ing beyond and above it on 
every side. There are about 
twenty-five dwellings in the 
town, I should say, and two 
streets. Most of the inhabit- 
ants, I am told, left on the ar- 
rival of the rebel forces, too 
assured of a fight here. Rising 
conspicuous above every 
other building is the court 
house. It is a two story, plain, 
square brick building, with a 
doriie-like roof of somewhat 
pretentious height and an am- 
bitious yellow color. The Ma- 
clean House where 
Lieutenant General Grant 
and General Lee had their 
conference, is evidently the 
best private residence of the 
town. It is likewise built of 
brick, as nearly all the houses 
in town are, with the inevita- 
ble portico in front and rear. 
I shall be greatly surprised if 
the bricks from this building 
do not at some future day 
command as high prices as 
ever did fragment from the 
charter oak or a cane from 
the Mount Vernon estate. 



| p, ^ps I 


TiAju.vt-jiarfe-ti^ o-k_ 6-e^fC- 


.,/ |^V &**<!& rr ";"' J 

Wilmer McLean, besides 
having lost many of his 
household furnishings to 
souvenir hunters, was in 
financial straits after the war. 
In an attempt to recoup some 
of his losses, he borrowed a 
substantial sum of money to 
underwrite the printing of 
thousands of copies of this 
lithograph. The demand never 
materialized and McLean went 



Alfred R. Waud was an artist 
who traveled with the Army 
of the Potomac working first 
for the New York Illustrated 
News and later for Harpers 
Weekly. He did this draw- 
ing on the field at Sailor's 
Creek as he saw Ewell's men 


Johnston was marching up from North Carolina now, 
and Lee was moving to join him; and they would 
whip the rebels where they now were in five minutes 
if I would only let them go in. But I had no doubt 
about the good faith of Lee." Grant then asked, 
"Is Lee over there?" pointing up to the village. "Yes, 
he is in that brick house," Sheridan replied. "Well, 
then, we'll go over," said Grant, and all rode for- 

The troops from both sides watched intently as the 
group neared the McLean house, the Federals hop- 
ing against hope that at last the war was really over, 
yet not daring to believe it because they had thought 
that it was over so many times before. The Confed- 
erates, unbelieving and apprehensive, were fearful 
there would be humiliating marches through north- 
ern cities and years in prisons. 

General Chamberlain, an interested observer of 
the events, described Grant: "Slouched hat without 
cord; common soldier's blouse, unbuttoned . . . high 
boots mud-splashed to the top, trousers tucked in- 
side; no sword, but sword hand deep in the pocket 
. . . taking no notice of anything, all his faculties 
gathered into intense thought." And what could 
Grant's Thoughts have been his thoughts? He later admitted that his 

feelings "were sad and depressed. I felt like anything 
rather than rejoicing at the downfall of a foe who 
had fought so long and valiantly." After graduating 
from the Military Academy in 1843, both had served 
in the Mexican War; but Grant had been a captain 
while Lee had been a colonel. After the war he had 
been stationed in lonely outposts in California and 
Oregon where the monotony and boredom became 
unbearable. Longing for his family, he took to drink- 
ing heavily and then resigned his commission in 1854. 
After that, in Missouri and Illinois, he had tried 
various ways of making a living from farming to sell- 
ing real estate to clerking in a store, without much 
success. With the advent of war he had been com- 
missioned a colonel in an Illinois regiment and pro- 
motions came fast, although not easily or without 
controversy. After his victory at Shiloh, in 1862, jeal- 
ous and ambitious superior officers had contrived to 
have him removed from his command, but the Pres- 
ident overruled them. Then in March 1864 Lincoln 
had called him east and promoted him to lieutenant 
general and made him commander of the Federal 


armies. And now he had come to Appomattox Court 

"When I went into the house I found General 
Lee," Grant wrote later. "We greeted each other, 
and after shaking hands took our seats." Grant then 
invited most of his staff who were present to enter. 
"We walked in softly," remembered Colonel Porter, 
"and ranged ourselves quietly about the sides of the 
room, very much as people enter a sick-chamber 
when they expect to find the patient dangerously ill. 
Some found seats on the sofa and the few chairs 
which constituted the furniture, but most of the party 
stood." Grant and Lee then chatted amicably about 
their service in the Mexican War and old army times. 
"Our conversation grew so pleasant," Grant stated, 
"that I almost forgot the object of our meeting." In 
fact, he seemed reluctant to talk about it. Finally 
Lee said, "I suppose, General Grant, that the object 
of our present meeting is fully understood. I asked 
to see you to ascertain upon what terms you would 
receive the surrender of my army." Grant replied 
Grant Meets Lee that the conditions were as he had expressed them 

in his letter of April 8, that Lee's "army should lay 
down their arms, not to take them up again during 
the continuance of the war unless duly and properly 
exchanged." Lee said that was about what he had 
expected and then requested Grant to put the terms 
in writing so they could be recorded and acted upon. 
Grant wrote rapidly. "When I put my pen to paper 
I did not know the first word that I should make use 
of in writing the terms," he later stated. "I only knew 
what was in my mind, and I wished to express it 
clearly, so that there could be no mistaking it. As 
I wrote on, the thought occurred to me that the 
officers had their own private horses and effects, 
which were important to them, but of no value to 
us; also that it would be an unnecessary humiliation 
to call upon them to deliver their side arms." When 
he finished writing Grant handed the paper to Lee. 
Putting on a pair of steel-rimmed glasses, Lee read 
the document carefully: 

General: In accordance with the substance of my 
letter of the 8th inst. , I propose to receive the 
surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia on the 
following terms, to wit: Rolls of all the officers and 
men to be made in duplicate, one copy to be given 


to an officer to be designated by me, the other to be 
retained by such officer or officers as you may 
designate. The officers to give their individual 
paroles not to take up arms against the Government 
of the United States until properly exchanged, and 
each company or regimental commander to sign a 
like parole for the men of their commands. The 
arms, artillery and public property to be parked, 
and stacked, and turned over to the officers 
appointed by me to receive them. This will not 
embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their 
private horses or baggage. This done, each officer 
and man will be allowed to return to his home, 
not to be disturbed by the United States authorities 
so long as they observe their paroles, and the laws 
in force where they may reside. 

Very respectfully, 
U. S. Grant, 

The Surrender Terms "This will have a very happy effect upon my 

army," said Lee. Grant then asked him if he had 
any further suggestions. After a short pause, Lee 
replied, 'There is one thing I would like to mention. 
The cavalrymen and artillerists own their own horses 
in our army. I would like to understand whether 
these men will be permitted to retain their horses?" 
Grant told him the terms did not allow this as he was 
unaware that the private soldiers owned their own 
animals. However, he then stated, "I take it that 
most of the men in the ranks are small farmers, and 
as the country has been so raided by the two armies, 
it is doubtful whether they will be able to put in a 
crop to carry themselves and their families through 
the next winter without the aid of the horses they 
are now riding, and I will arrange it this way: I will 
not change the terms as now written, but I will in- 
struct the officers I shall appoint to receive the pa- 
roles to let all the men who claim to own a horse or 
mule take the animals home with them to work their 
little farms." Lee was visibly relieved and said with 
evident warmth, "This will have the best possible 
effect upon the men. It will be very gratifying and 
will do much toward conciliating our people." 

Lee then instructed Colonel Marshall to draft a 
letter of acceptance of the terms of surrender, and 


Lee's Response 

after making a few changes in the original draft, he 
signed the final: 

General: I received your letter of this date 
containing the terms of surrender of the Army of 
Northern Virginia as prepared by you. As they are 
substantially the same as those expressed in your 
letter of the 8th inst. , they are accepted. I will 
proceed to designate the proper officers to carry the 
stipulations into effect. 

R. E. Lee, General 

Lee Accepts 

Preparing to leave, Lee mentioned that he had 
some Federal prisoners he would send through the 
lines immediately as he had no provisions for them, 
nor indeed for his own men. Grant asked how large 
his present force was. Lee hesitated. "Indeed, I am 
not able to say," he finally replied. "My losses in 
killed and wounded have been exceedingly heavy, 
and, besides, there have been many stragglers and 
some deserters." He had not seen any returns for 
several days, as many of the companies were without 
officers. Grant asked if 25,000 rations would be 
sufficient. "I think it will be ample," Lee replied, 
"and it will be a great relief, I assure you." He then 
shook hands again with Grant, bowed to the other 
officers, and left with Marshall. Sheridan noted his 
departure: "He mounted his chunky gray horse, and 
lifting his hat as he passed out of the yard, rode off 
toward his army, his arrival there being announced 
to us by cheering, which, as it progressed, varying 
in loudness, told he was riding through the bivouac 
of the Army of Northern Virginia." 

General Longstreet watched Lee as he came 
through the lines. "From force of habit a burst of 
salutations greeted him, but it quieted as suddenly 
as it arose. The road was packed by standing troops 
as he approached, the men with hats off, heads and 
hearts bowed down. As he passed they raised their 
heads and looked down upon him with swimming 
eyes. Those who could find voice said good-bye, 
those who could not speak and were near, passed 
their hands gently over the sides of Traveller." One 
North Carolina officer recalled that as Lee passed, 
"we drove our guns into the hard earth to tie our 
horses to, made a fire, burned our flag to keep the 


Yankees from getting it, and waited for further or- 
ders and something to eat." 

It was over. "There was no theatrical display about 
it," Marshall stated, "it was the simplest, plainest, 
and most thoroughly devoid of any attempt at effect, 
that you can imagine." And a Federal regimental 
historian recorded: "The most stupendous of strug- 
gles was ended in the most compassionate manner. 
The old world had never seen a conqueror dismissing 
thousands whom he had beaten, to their homes and 
vocations bearing with them such articles as might 
contribute to their future well being." All that was 
left now was the stacking of arms and colors, the 
formal surrender ceremony, and that was set for 
April 12, exactly four years to the day after the first 
firing on Fort Sumter. General Chamberlain had the 
honor of formally accepting the surrender. 

Grant departed shortly thereafter, down the road 
to where his headquarters was being set up just west 
of the village. Reminded on the way that he had not 
yet notified Washington, Grant dismounted, sat 
down on a large stone, and wrote: "Hon. E. M. 
Stanton, Secretary of War, Washington: General 
Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia this 
afternoon on terms proposed by myself. The accom- 
panying additional correspondence will show the 
conditions fully." By the time he reached his 
headquarters the word had spread through the Fed- 
eral ranks. Col. Theodore Lyman, a member of 
Meade's staff, described the scene at the headquar- 
ters of the Army of the Potomac: "The soldiers 
rushed, perfectly crazy, to the roadside, and there 
crowding in dense masses, shouted, screamed, yelled, 
threw up their hats and hopped madly up and down. 
The batteries were run out and began firing, the 
bands played, the flags waved. And there was Gen- 
eral Meade galloping about and waving his cap with 
the best of them." When Grant heard the cannon 
fire, however, he ordered it stopped. "The war is 
over," he told his officers, "the rebels are our coun- 
trymen again, and the best sign of rejoicing after the 
victory will be to abstain from all demonstrations in 
the field." 
Rations In this same vein the men in the ranks did not wait 

for the Confederates for the slow delivery of rations from the supply 

trains. Instead, "imbued with the same spirit as that 
of their leader, emptied their haversacks for the aid 


and comfort of those whom they had so recently 
fought and followed. Both sides had learned to re- 
spect each other." To the starving Confederates 
nothing could have tasted better than the fresh beef, 
bacon, hardtack, coffee and sugar their comrades in 
arms now presented them. A young Confederate 
officer remembered: "Our friends, the enemy, sent 
us some beef and crackers and to each officer a quart 
of whiskey, which helped to pass the time." Soon 
the stragglers started drifting in to partake of the 
feast, and all seemed relieved and happy to learn 
they could go home. 

In the meantime, chaos reigned in the McLean 
parlor as "the relic hunters charged down upon the 
manor-house and made various attempts to jump 
Mr. McLean's claim to his own furniture," Colonel 
Porter reported. "Bargains were at once struck for 
all the articles in the room, and it is even said that 
some mementos were carried off for which no coin of 
the realm was ever exchanged." Sylvanus Cadwallader 
said that two cavalry officers seized the chairs that 
Grant and Lee had occupied and carried them off 
after McLean indignantly threw their "greenbacks" 
on the floor. Sometime later, a cavalryman came 
back and thrust $10 into McLean's hands saying, 
"This is for the Major's chair." A diligent search was 
made, but neither chairs nor men were found. 

A gentle intermittent rain was falling the next 
morning. Soon the redbud and dogwood would 
bloom, the wild honeysuckle would blossom. The air 
was soft in Virginia in April, and the land seemed 
to have a smoothness and gentleness about it, a 
timeless quality. 

Grant and his staff, preceded by a bugler and an 
officer carrying a white flag, rode out to the western 
edge of the village for a last meeting with Lee. The 
two commanders met on a small knoll overlooking 
the Appomattox River, out of hearing distance from 
the others. "Meade and staff, Sheridan and staff, 
Ord and staff, and a large concourse of general of- 
ficers were ranged in semi-circular line in the back- 
ground," Cadwallader noted, "presenting a tableau 
not often witnessed. Back of us lay the Federal 
troops compactly massed, and many of them in view. 
In front of us across a ravine which separated the 
two armies, lay the shattered remnants of Lee's 
grand army of invasion, which had carried conster- 


nation to the north until Antietam and Gettysburg 
had driven them from our borders." 
Reaction to Surrender Grant described the meeting: "We had there be- 

tween the lines, sitting on horseback, a very pleasant 
conversation of over half an hour, in the course of 
which Lee said to me that the South was a big country 
and that we might have to march over it three or 
four times before the war entirely ended, but that 
we would now be able to do it as they could no longer 
resist us. He expressed it as his earnest hope, how- 
ever, that we would not be called upon to cause more 
loss and sacrifice of life; but he could not foretell the 
result. I then suggested to General Lee that there 
was not a man in the Confederacy whose influence 
with the soldiery and the whole people was as great 
as his, and that if he would now advise the surrender 
of all the armies I had no doubt his advice would be 
followed with alacrity. But Lee said, that he could 
not do that without consulting the President first. I 
knew there was no use to urge him to do anything 
against his ideas of what was right." Grant then re- 
quested Lee's permission for some of his officers to 
go into the Confederate camp to find old friends, 
old classmates. "They went over, had a very pleasant 
time with their old friends, and brought some of 
them back with them when they returned." 
That same day Grant broke up his field headquarters 
west of the village and left for Washington. 

Riding back to his headquarters Lee was surprised 
when a Federal party, led by General Meade, rode 
up to him. Meade raised his hat in salutation as Lee 
recognized his old acquaintance. "But what are you 
doing with all that gray in your beard?" Lee asked. 
Meade smiled and replied, "You have to answer for 
most of it." After a pleasant chat, Lee returned to 
his tent and directed the writing of his last order to 
his soldiers: "You will take with you the satisfaction 
that proceeds from the consciousness of duty faith- 
fully performed; and I earnestly pray that a merciful 
God will extend to you His blessing and protection." 
And to a friend he wrote, "I believe it to be the duty 
of every one to unite in the restoration of the coun- 
try, and the reestablishment of peace and har- 
mony. ..." Although he did not take part in the 
surrender ceremony, which would take place two 
days later, Lee did not leave for Richmond until it 
was nearly over. 


The Ceremony of That same morning the six officers appointed by 

Surrender Grant and Lee to arrange the details of the surrender 

met in the Clover Hill Tavern. But, according to 
General Gibbon, it "was a bare and cheerless place 
and at my suggestion we adjourned to the room in 
the McLean house where Generals Grant and Lee 
had held their conference." Here the final agreement 
for the surrender was signed at 8:30 that night. 

Printing presses were set up in the tavern to turn 
out the thousands of parole passes needed. Some 
30,000 parole forms were printed and distributed to the 
Confederate camps where they would be completed. 
April 12 dawned gray and depressing, a damp chill 
in the air. Federal soldiers lined both sides of the old 
stage road from the western edge of the village to 
a point near the river. Then came the Confederates 
marching between the lines to lay down their arms 
for the last time, led by General Gordon on a mag- 
nificent black horse. "Before us in proud humiliation 
stood the embodiment of manhood,' 1 General 
Chamberlain wrote, "men whom neither toils and 
sufferings, nor the fact of death, nor disaster, nor 
hopelessness could bend from their resolve; standing 
before us now thin, worn, and famished, but erect, 
and with eyes looking level into ours, waking mem- 
ories that bound us together as no other bond; was 
not such manhood to be welcomed back into a Union 
so tested and assured?" Out of respect for the former 
foe, Chamberlain ordered his men to "carry arms." 
Then, wrote Chamberlain, "Gordon at the head 
of the column, riding with heavy spirit and downcast 
face, catches the sound of shifting arms, looks up, 
and taking the meaning, wheels superbly, making 
with himself and his horse one uplifted figure, with 
profound salutation as he drops the point of his 
sword to the boot toe; then facing his own command, 
gives word for his successive brigades to pass us with 
the same position of the manual — honor answering 
honor. On our part not a sound of trumpet more, 
nor roll of drum; not a cheer, nor word nor whisper 
of vain-glorying, nor motion of man standing again 
at the order, but an awed stillness rather, and breath- 
holding, as if it were the passing of the dead!" 

"The charges were now withdrawn from the 
guns," Colonel Porter wrote, "the camp-fires were 
left to smolder in their ashes, the flags were tenderly 
furled — those historic banners, battle-stained, bul- 


let-riddled, many of them but remnants of their for- 
mer selves, with scarcely enough left of them on 
which to imprint the names of the battles they had 
seen — and the Army of the Union and the Army of 
Northern Virginia turned their backs upon each 
other for the first time in four long, bloody years." 

That afternoon General Lee left for Richmond. 
It was the fourth anniversary of the firing on Fort 
Sumter that had precipitated the war. Now Confed- 
erate arms stood stacked in the mud as the printing 
presses ground out 28,231 individual parole passes. 

Two days later President Lincoln went to Ford's 
Theater in Washington to see the popular play "Our 
American Cousin." There the assassin's bullet mor- 
tally wounded the man who had struggled so hard 
for union and peace. 

On April 26, near Durham, North Carolina, Gen- 
eral Johnston surrendered to General Sherman, and 
by June 2 the remaining isolated forces in the trans- 
Mississippi West had laid down their arms. The most 
costly war in American history was over. The Union 
was preserved. 



Guide and Adviser 

From Battlefield to Park 

When you visit Appomattox 
Court House you see the site 
of an important episode in 
American history. And you 
also get to see how the people 
of this village, who lived 
rather ordinary lives, went 
about their daily chores. 

When the opposing armies left Appomattox Court 
House, the village settled back into obscurity, ap- 
parently forgotten in the rush to mark battlefields, 
large and small of the late war. In 1889, a group of 
Union veterans, organized as the Appomattox Land 
Company, planned to develop the area, but these 
plans were soon shattered. The McLean House was 
bought with the intention of moving it, and in 1892 
the courthouse burned to the ground. The village's 
future had gone up in smoke. 

In the next 40 years only a Congressional reso- 
lution in 1895 and the dedication of the North Car- 
olina monument in 1905 disturbed the stillness. On 
June 18, 1930, Congress passed a bill providing for 
the building of a monument on the old courthouse 
grounds to memorialize the surrender. In July 1933 
this responsibility was transferred to the National 
Park Service, which took the opportunity to suggest 
restoring the whole village. The idea was enthusi- 
astically received locally and soon won national sup- 
port. The program was carried to Congress and on 
August 3, 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt 
signed a bill creating Appomattox Court House Na- 
tional Monument. (On April 6, 1954, the designation 
was changed to Historical Park.) 

The Resettlement Administration began purchas- 
ing land, and on April 10, 1940, the park was pro- 
claimed established. Work on the buildings started, 
but it was interrupted by war. 

After World War II, the work of restoration and 
reconstruction was revived and slowly the buildings 
were opened. Today little work remains to be done 
on the village, and, with the exception of those build- 
ings that have not been reconstructed, the village 
looks very much as it did on the fateful day when 
Grant and Lee met in the first step of reuniting the 
United States. 


li tT 




* i 


■ m 

Visiting the Village Today 

Today Appomattox Court 
House National Historical 
Park represents faithfully the 
appearance of the village on 
the day in April 1865 when 
Lee and Grant met and the 
Civil War came to a close. 
Some structures that were 
standing then are now gone, 
victims of time and neglect, 
but all buildings that figured 
prominently in the events of 
the surrender have either 
been restored or been recon- 
structed. Their locations are 
noted on the map on pages 

The park is located in south 
central Virginia between 
Richmond and Lynchburg on 
Va. 24 just northeast of the 
town of Appomattox. Access 
is by private car and bus. The 
nearest major airport is in 
Richmond. Lynchburg and 
Richmond are the nearest rail 
passenger stops. There are 
motels in Appomattox and a 
campground at Holliday Lake 
State Park, northeast of the 
park off Va. 24. The Appo- 
mattox Chamber of Com- 
merce, Appomatox, Virginia 
24522, can provide you with 
more information about the 
community. The park is open 
every day of the year except 
for federal holidays from No- 
vember through February. 
The park is a federal fee area; 
Golden Eagle and Golden 
Age passes are accepted. 

Begin your visit to the village 
at the visitor center in the re- 
constructed courthouse build- 
ing. The exterior is faithful to 
the appearance of the original 
building, but the interior is 
greatly altered. On the first 
floor, uniformed personnel 
can answer your questions 
and tell you of any special 
programs, activities, or dem- 

onstrations that may be going 
on. Upstairs you will find ex- 
hibits that relate to the his- 
toric events. Two slide shows, 
each 15 minutes long, are 
shown in the auditorium up- 
stairs. The first is a straight- 
forward account of the events 
of April 2-12, 1865. The other, 
entitled "Honor Answers 
Honor," is based on first- 
person accounts of the for- 
mal surrender ceremonies. 

The town of Appomattox is 
five kilometers (three miles) 
to the southwest at the junc- 
tion of Va. 24 and U.S. 460. 
In the middle of the town 
you can see the courthouse 
that was built after the one at 
Appomattox Court House 
burned in 1892. The combi- 
nation of the new courthouse 
and the railroad, which had 
been the goal of General Lee 
and his armies in their losing 
race westward, ensured the 
future of Appomattox and the 
decay of Appomattox Court 

Outside the village are sev- 
eral other sites you may wish 
to see while you are at the 
park. Northeast of the village 
is the site of Lee's headquar- 
ters that last night where he 
pondered his decision. From 
the parking lot off Va. 24, a 
20-minute walk will take you 
to the site. West of the vil- 
lage, also off Va. 24, is the 
site of Grant's headquarters 
for the night of April 9, 1865. 
The North Carolina monu- 
ment, just east of Grant's 
headquarters, is the only state 
monument in the park. A 
small cemetery just west of 
the village contains the graves 
of 18 Confederates and one 
Union soldier who were killed 
in the fighting at Appomattox. 
The cemetery is maintained 

by the United Daughters of 
the Confederacy. If you have 
time you may wish to walk 
the hiking trail that connects 
all these locations. 

On the next few pages is a 
guide to the buildings of the 
village. Any questions that 
may arise during your visit 
can be answered by the staff, 
who are veritable storehouses 
of information about the his- 
toric events and the history 
of the village. Enjoy yourself, 
at any season, as you dis- 
cover this quiet, peaceful, and 
special place, where the Na- 
tion began the process of be- 
coming one again. 


The Courthouse 

Appomattox County was es- 
tablished in 1845, and the 
original courthouse was built 
the next year. In 1892 fire de- 
stroyed the building, and the 
citizens of the county voted to 
move the county seat to Ap- 
pomattox Station, now Appo- 
mattox, a five-minute drive 
southwest. The courthouse 
played no role in the surren- 
der, for it was closed that 
day, Palm Sunday. The two- 
story, brick building was re- 
constructed in 1963-64 and is 
presently used as the park's 
visitor center. 

Meeks' Store 

The store was built in 1852 by 
John Plunkett and was bought 
in the early 1860s by Francis 
Meeks who served also as the 
local postmaster and druggist. 
Meeks' son, who served with 
the Confederate Army, died 
of typhoid during the war and 
was buried in the village. In 
later years, Rev. James Rawl- 
ings, a Presbyterian minister, 
bought the store and turned it 
into his home. When he left, 
he presented the frame struc- 
ture to the Presbyterian 
Church for use as a manse. 
During its life as a store, this 

was one of the social centers 
of village life. Here neighbors 
met and discussed politics, the 
latest news, and exchanged 
bits of gossip. Today the store 
looks much like it did in those 
times. Frequently park inter- 
preters are on hand to tell 
you about those days and to 
give you a feel for the atmos- 
phere of a country store more 
than a century ago. This 
building is a restoration. 

Woodson's Law Office 

This one-room, frame build- 
ing may have been here as 
early as 1851. In any case, 
John W. Woodson, who was 
one of several lawyers work- 
ing in Appomattox Court 
House, purchased it in 1856 
and practiced law here until 
his death, July 1, 1864, of ty- 
phoid. The office is plainly 
furnished and is typical of the 
country lawyers' offices to be 
found in Virginia's county 
seats of that period. This 
building is a restoration. 


Appomattox Court House National Historical Park 

The roads shown on this map, 
with the exception of the park- 
ing lot, are closed to all vehi- 
cles. The historic roads are 
for pedestrians only. 

1865 structure site 

Patteson-Hix Burial Ground 

Stave Quarters (restrooms) 


Tavern Icehouse, 


Clover Hill Tavern 

• Tavern bar 

Robertson-Glover store 

William Rosser Shops 

Woodson Law Office 

Privy 8 


William Rosser house 
Original jail 

Appomattox County Courthouse 

Meeks' Store 


Appomattox County Jail 

Meeks Grave • 

Old Raine tavern 

Union Academy 
•Dwelling House e 9-° 





^ u 

McLean House 




Slave Quarters 

Pryor-Wright house 





Lee-Grant meeting, 
April 10, 1865 



Peers House 









*««* 9 


Willis Inge cabin 


Kelly House 

? <V 



Layne house 

u *c 

Isbell House 



Stable A, 





Mariah Wright House 

The Surrender Scene in Neglect 

When the two armies left Ap- 
pomattox Court House the 
McLean family found that al- 
most all the furniture in their 
parlor had been carried off by 
souvenir hunters and that 
very little of it had been paid 
for. Four years later they sold 
their home to a Mr. Pascoe 
and moved to Alexandria. 
Pascoe sold the house three 
years later. Eventually the 
place was sold in 1891 to 
M. E. Dunlap of Niagara 
Falls, New York. Dunlap 

tried to raise money to move 
the house to Chicago for the 
World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion. When this venture 
failed, Dunlap decided to 
move the house to Washing- 
ton, D.C., where it would be 
on permanent display. In 
1893, preparatory to this 
move, the house was disman- 
tled. Money for moving and 
reassembling the house, how- 
ever, never materialized and 
the bricks and wood were 
never moved, as this photo- 

graph shows. By the time the 
park was established in 1940, 
time and weather had left 
only a pile of rotten wood 
and crumbly bricks. The re- 
constructed house, based on 
extensive research, was dedi- 
cated April 16, 1950, with 
U.S. Grant III and Robert E. 
Lee IV as guests of honor. 

L v., ""-" * %- % ***** - ' ,i3m ^ ^ 

McLean House 

The house was built in 1848 
by Charles Raine, a member 
of a leading county family. In 
1863 Wilmer McLean bought 
the house and grounds from 
Raine's estate and his family 
moved in. The three-story 
brick house has a parlor and 
master bedroom on the first 
floor, two children's bed- 
rooms on the second and a 
warming kitchen and dining 
room on the ground floor. 
The present structure is a re- 
construction. From the back- 
yard (right, top) you can see 
the proximity of the kitchen 
to the house. The furnishings 
in the house are typical of the 
McLean's own possessions; 
some items did in fact belong to 
the family. Those in the master 
bedroom (right, middle) are 
bulky, large pieces of the 
early Victorian period. Many 
of the contents of the parlor 
are copies of the originals. 
Compare this scene today to 
the painting on pages 58-59, 
and in the visitor center that 
was done by Louis Guillaume. 

Besides the main house, var- 
ious other structures, each 
with a specific function, are lo- 
cated on the property. Behind 
the house were the quarters 
of the house servants, family 
slaves. A downstairs room 
(right, bottom) served as the 
bedroom. Meals were pre- 
pared in the log kitchen, be- 
side the quarters. Both build- 
ings are reconstructions. 

The well, inside the gazebo in 
front of the house, originally 
was 12 meters (40 feet) deep 
and, according to old-timers, 
it was good even in the dry 
season. This is a reconstruc- 
tion. In the ice house, just 
east of the residence, ice was 
stored and kept for use during 
the hot months. The log 
structure is a reconstruction. 


Clover Hill and Appomattox Court House 

The tavern in this picture, 
which dates from the 1900s, 
was built in the early years of 
the 19th century and came to 
be the focus of a small collec- 
tion of homes, stores, and 
shops that in mid-century were 
transformed from the settle- 
ment of Clover Hill to the vil- 
lage of Appomattox Court 
House. The new county of 
Appomattox had a population 
of about 9,300, of whom 

4,200 were white, 4,900 were 
slaves, and 200 were free 
blacks. The county was pre- 
dominantly rural and agricul- 
tural in character, and 
through the years, even up to 
today, has remained a region 
of moderate-size farms. At 
one point in the 1850s several 
local boosters hoped for 
riches from the new Southside 
Railroad and the James River 
and Kanawha Canal, but no 

economic boom developed. 

For Appomattox Court House 
itself the establishment of the 
county brought only a little 
new commercial activity. The 
town probably never contained 
more than 30 families — 
perhaps 120 persons — black 
and white. And when the 
courthouse burned in 1892 
and the county seat was 
moved, decay set in and by 

the 1900s was well under way, 
as this picture shows. In the 
end, the abandonment and 
decay saved the town, for 
when North and South were 
ready to memorialize the 
place where peace had begun 
after four years of war, the 
original character of the site 
was recoverable. 



.» - 


The Guesthouse: A Study in Restoration 

When the park was estab- 
lished in 1940 most of the his- 
toric structures still extant 
were in varying states of dis- 
repair. The work on the tav- 
ern guesthouse is typical of 

that done to the other struc- 
tures and illustrates the resto- 
ration process. First, even be- 
fore archeological and 
historical research, the build- 
ing had to be stabilized to 
prevent further deterioration, 
as the pictures show. 

was done with the knowledge 
that it might have to be done 
over as the results of research 
became apparent. Once the 
structure was stabilized, re- 
search into the historical rec- 
ord could begin. Many ques- 
tions would have to be 
answered: Was the building 
painted? If so, what color? 
What type of roof? What kind 
of windows? Were there shut- 
ters? What kind of door did 
the guesthouse have? What 
special local materials or 
methods were used? And 

The walls were shored up 
with supports, cracks were 
filled, and missing bricks and 
mortar were replaced. A 
weather-tight temporary roof 
was put on to prevent further 
weather damage. In most in- 
stances this work did not rep- 
resent historic methods and 

many more such questions 
had to be answered. 

Old photographs, drawings, 
descriptions, interviews with 
longtime residents, and other 
sources provided clues to the 
answers. When a sufficient 
body of information was as- 
sembled, the painstaking 
work of duplicating the origi- 
nal building could begin. The 
last picture shows the roof, of 
wooden shingles, being put 
on. Slowly but surely the 
work would go on until the 
fully restored structure would 
be finished. The result? See 
the bottom photograph to the 


Clover Hill Tavern 

The brick tavern dates from 
1819 when it was built by 
Alexander Patteson to serve 
travelers and stage lines on 
the Richmond-Lynchburg 
Stage Road. The old photo- 
graph on pages 92-93 shows 
the old frame barroom on the 
southeast corner. Another 
structure that served as the 
dining room at the west end is 
now gone. In the two down- 
stairs rooms of the restored 
tavern you can see where 
many of the paroles were 
printed (right, middle) for the 
surrendered Confederates. 
The west room has been re- 
stored as it appeared in 1864. 
Exhibit panels there tell about 
how the paroles were printed 
in the east room and then 
distributed to the troops for 

Directly behind the tavern 
can be found the servants' 
quarters. Here the slaves, 
owned by the tavern keeper, 
lived. Their jobs included 
cooking and cleaning and per- 
haps tending a vegetable gar- 
den. The quarters now con- 
tain restrooms equipped for 
the handicapped. The 
building is a reconstruction. 



The Guesthouse 

The second floor of this 
guesthouse, built about 1819, 
was used for travelers when 
the tavern was full. The 
rooms were reached by the 
outside stairs. The first floor 
was used largely for storage. 
Compare this present-day 
photograph to those of the 
restoration work through the 
years on the opposite page. 



The tavern kitchen, which 
was built about 1819, was 
convenient to the dining room 
that originally stood just 
ahead of it at the west end of 
the main building. Its upstairs 
rooms accommodated travel- 
ers for whom there was no 
room in the tavern or guest- 
house. Today the kitchen 
houses a sales facility where 
you may buy books and sou- 
venirs relating to the historic 
events at Appomattox Court 
House. The building is a res- 


The first county jail was di- 
rectly across the road from 
the present building, which 
was begun about 1860 but was 
not finished until 1870, after 
the Civil War. From that time 
until the county seat was 
moved in 1892 it indeed was 
used as the jail. The sheriffs 
office and quarters were on 
the first floor and the cells 
were on the top two. From 
that time until 1940, the jail 
served as the polling station 
for the Clover Hill magisterial 
district. The brick building is 
a restoration. 

Kelly House 

This frame house was prob- 
ably built between 1845 and 
1860. At any rate it was 
standing at the time of the 
surrender. The mother of 
Lorenzo Kelly, carpenter and 
handyman, may have watched 
the scene, for she was living 
here at the time. After the 
war John Robinson, a black 
shoemaker, and his wife lived 
here. They are buried in a 
small graveyard behind the 
house. The house is restored 
and partially furnished. 


Isbell House 

The house was built by 
Thomas Salem Bocock and 
Henry Flood Bocock in 1849— 
50. Thomas was speaker of 
the Confederate House and 
Henry was clerk of the court 
for Appomattox County from 
1845 to 1860. A third brother, 
Willis, was Virginia attorney 
general in 1853. Lewis Isbell, 
who was commonwealth's at- 
torney for Appomattox County 
during the Civil War, lived in 
this house at the time of the 
surrender. The house, which 
is a restoration, and grounds 
are not open to the public. 

Peers House 

Just when this frame house 
was built is unknown, but it 
was here in 1855, when, rec- 
ords show, it was sold by a 
Mr. McDearmon to William 
Abbitt. A year later he sold it 
to D. A. Plunkett. At the 
time of Plunkett's death in 
1870, the house was bought 
by George Peers at public 
auction. Peers, who was clerk 
of the court for Appomattox 
County for 40 years, lived 
here at the time of the sur- 
render. The house is a resto- 
ration and is not open to the 

Mariah Wright House 

The frame house was most 
likely built in the early to 
mid-1820s. Little is known of 
Mariah Wright except that 
she was a widow. On the 
morning of April 9, 1865, 
General Chamberlain's infan- 
try was advancing on the 
Confederates through town 
and his right flank had 
reached the Wright House 
when a flag of truce came out 
from their lines. The house is 
a restoration and the interior 
is unfinished. 


The Route of Lee's Retreat 

Note that the route marked in red, 
besides being the route of Lee's 
retreat, is also the modern alignment 
of roads that you will use in making 
this journey. The dates in red and 
blue show where Lee and Grant, 
respectively, spent the night. The text 
on the next two pages gives you the 
directions and information you will 
need for the trip. 

Route of Lee's retreat 

line of march 


Union line of march 

Commander of a 
line of march 


Jetersville w 

Sailor's Creek Battlefiel 
Historical State Park 

01 Kilometer 10 

April 6 

April 5 

1 Mile 






Bermuda Hundred 

City Point Unit 



Petersburg NB 
Visitor Center 


Five Forks Unit 

Following Lee's Retreat 

As a sidetrip, you might like 
to follow the route Lee took 
in his retreat from Petersburg 
to Appomattox. Most of the 
roads that Lee and his army 
followed still exist today. In a 
few places modern, four-lane 
highways have been laid 
down, but to a large degree 
the narrow, sinuous roads the 
Army of Northern Virginia 
traveled from Petersburg to 
Appomattox Court House are 
today as they were then. The 
countryside, once you reach 
the western part of Chester- 
field County, has changed 
little with the passage of time. 
Some fields have become for- 
ests and some forests have 
become fields, but by and 
large the face of the land is 
similar. The land also is still 
sparsely settled; in fact most 
Southside Virginia counties 
have only a few more people 
than they did in 1860. Time 
seems to have stood still here, 
so if you drive this route in 
early spring you have the 
eerie feeling of sharing an ex- 
rience that ended well more 
than a century ago. Regard- 
less of the time of year you 
make the trip, however, you'll 
come away with an apprecia- 
tion of the countryside that 
the armies had to contend 
with and you will find your- 
self gripped by the frantic 
race these two armies ran. 

The following narrative ac- 
companies the map on the 
previous two pages and is de- 
signed to do two things: give 
you an account of what hap- 
pened on each day of the re- 
treat and provide you with di- 
rections for following the 
route. Before beginning, how- 
ever, you need to know how 
Virginia state highways are 
marked. The state road sys- 
tem contains primary and sec- 

ondary routes. The primary 
roads are shown as heart- 
shaped shields and given com- 
pass directions such as Va. 7 
east. The secondary routes 
are circles on a black, square 
background. At intersections, 
the secondary routes, only, 
are indicated by the numbers 
appearing in small rectangles 
with arrows pointing the di- 
rection to go. Occasionally, 
too, you will find signs 
marked "Route of Lee's Re- 
treat," erected by the State of 
Virginia. So, though the route 
is mainly on country roads 
you should have no trouble 
finding your way. 

Before you begin your trip 
along the retreat route you 
may wish to visit a few loca- 
tions in the Richmond-Peters- 
burg area that will give you a 
better understanding of the 
events of April 2-9, 1865. 

Richmond National Battle- 
field Park, besides preserving 
sites linked to the series of 
1862 battles before Rich- 
mond, also maintains and in- 
terprets several of the battle- 
fields of the 1864 campaign. 
The visitor center at 3215 
East Broad Street (U.S. 60 
east), has exhibits and an 
audiovisual program that help 
orient you to the historic 
events. National Park Service 
employees can answer your 
questions. Schedules of living 
history programs and other 
special events throughout the 
year are available. The people 
at the main visitor center can 
give you directions for getting 
to the site of Cold Harbor 
where a smaller visitor center 
is located. 

The trenches at Cold Harbor 
are well-preserved and are 
very fine examples of Civil 

War field fortifications. A bat- 
tlefield auto tour has been 
laid out so that you may fol- 
low it at your own pace. 

Petersburg National Battle- 
field contains most of the 
siege lines that eventually cut 
off the eastern and southern 
approaches to the city. The 
visitor center for the park is 
located just east of the Peters- 
burg city limits with an en- 
trance off Va. 36. In the War 
Room of the visitor center, 
15-minute talks that explain 
the opposing strategies are 
given on the hour. A self- 
guiding auto tour follows a 
portion of the battlefield. 
Along the way you can stop 
and see a Dictator-type 
17,000-pound Union mortar 
that hurled heavy explosive 
shells into the city of Peters- 
burg, more than 4 kilometers 
(2V2 miles) away; Fort Sted- 
man, a Union stronghold that 
was the objective of Lee's 
last offensive in March 1865; 
and the Crater, the site of a 
disastrous Union attempt to 
undermine the Confederate 
lines. The remainder of the 
entire siege line and the Con- 
federate defense line are 
marked as well. Artillery dem- 
onstrations are frequently 
given during the summer. 

Of interest also may be a 
sidetrip to Five Forks Battle- 
field where the Union victory 
made the Confederate posi- 
tion in Petersburg untenable. 
Five Forks is 34 kilometers 
(21 miles) from the park visi- 
tor center. It can be reached 
via Va. 36 west, U.S. 1 south, 
U.S. 460 west, and Route 627. 
This land constitutes the Five 
Forks Unit of Petersburg Na- 
tional Battlefield. 

The City Point Unit, in 
Hopewell, preserves Grant's 


The best place to begin your 
trip is at the Petersburg Na- 
tional Battlefield Visitor 
Center. From this point to 
Appomattox Court House Na- 
tional Historical Park is 181 
kilometers (112 miles). 
Though this distance could 
normally be covered in a lit- 
tle more than two hours, the 
combination of the back 
roads and stopping to read 
the state historical markers 
will mean that the trip could 
easily take four or five hours. 

April 2, 1865 

The previous day's battle at 
Five Forks has forced Lee to 
begin the withdrawal of his 
army from Petersburg and be- 
gin the trek west with the 
hope of meeting up with Joe 
Johnston in North Carolina. 
Other Confederate forces pull 
out of the Richmond area to 
join Lee. 

Directions: From the Peters- 
burg National Battlefield Vis- 
itor Center follow Va. 36 west 
through Petersburg to the 
crossing of the Appomattox. 

April 3, 1865 

The first full day of the re- 
treat finds the army moving 
well along with every hope 
that they will reach Amelia 
and the needed supples. Lee 
spends the night near Hebron 
Church. Near here is Clover 
Hill Plantation where Lee was 
the dinner guest of Judge 
James H. Cox. 
Directions: Continue on Va. 
36; note that a short while 
after leaving Matoaca the 
road number changes to 
Route 602. Next, right onto 
Route 621 and left on Route 
603. Join U.S. 360 near the 
location of Hebron Church. 

April 4, 1865 

Amelia is reached but there 
are no supplies and a day is 
spent searching for food and 

forage locally. Units from 
Richmond have now joined 
the main army. Note the old 
courthouse green. It is little 
changed since 1865. 
Directions: U.S. 360 west to 
U.S. 360 business to Amelia. 

April 5, 1865 

Continuing west Lee runs into 
Union infantry at Jetersville 
and veers off toward Farm- 
ville where he has learned 
that supplies definitely are 

Directions: U.S. 360 business 
to U.S. 360 west to Route 642 
to the location of Amelia 
Springs at 642's junction with 
Route 617. 

April 6, 1865 

Lee continues to Farmville 
but the Union advance catches 
up with the rear of his army 
at Sailor's Creek and 7,700 
are captured. The rest secure 
supplies in Farmville. Sailor's 
Creek Battlefield Historical 
State Park has an interpretive 
auto route along Route 617. 
Directions: Continue on 
Route 617 to Route 600. Note 
that this junction is very con- 
fusing; you will make one left 
and two rights in a very short 
distance. Follow 600 to U.S. 
460 west and then U.S. 460 
business into Farmville. 

April 7, 1865 

Lee leaves Farmville, tries to 
burn the bridges over the 
Appomattox, but Grant's men 
are close enough to put the 
fires out. Near Cumberland 
Church Lee receives Grant's 
first message asking him to 

Directions: From Farmville 
take Va. 45 north. 

April 8, 1865 

Lee heads west again for 
supplies that are waiting at 
Appomattox Station. 
Directions: Va. 45 to Route 

636to Va. 24 south. 

April 9, 1865 

In the vicinity of Appomattox 
Court House, Lee finds that 
the Federals are blocking his 
way and also are pushing 
from behind. He goes to meet 
Grant and surrenders. 
Directions: Follow Va. 24 to 
Appomattox Court House Na- 
tional Historical Park. 


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Documents of the Surrender 

Lee-Grant Correspondence 

April 7, 1865 Grant to Lee 

General: The result of the last week must convince you of the 
hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of 
Northern Virginia in this struggle. I feel that it is so, and regard 
it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any 
further effusion of blood, by asking of you the surrender of that 
portion of the C.S. Army known as the Army of Northern 

U. S. Grant, 

April 7, 1865 Lee to Grant 
The detail at left is from 
Lee's note to Grant, April 7, 

General: I have received your note of this date. Though not 
entertaining the opinion you express on the hopelessness of 
further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, I reciprocate your desire to avoid useless effusion of 
blood, and therefore, before considering your proposition, ask 
the terms you will offer on condition of its surrender. 

R. E. Lee, 


April 8, 1865 Grant to Lee 

General: Your note of last evening, in reply to mine of same 
date, asking the condition on which I will accept the surrender 
of the Army of Northern Virginia, is just received. In reply I 
would say that peace being my great desire, there is but one 
condition I would insist upon, namely, that the men and 
officers surrendered shall be disqualified for taking up arms 
again against the Government of the United States until 
properly exchanged. I will meet you, or will designate officers 
to meet any officers you may name for the same purpose, at 
any point agreeable to you, for the purpose of arranging 
definitely the terms upon which the surrender of the Army of 
Northern Virginia will be received. 

U. S. Grant 

April 8, 1865 Lee to Grant 

General: I received at a late hour your note of to-day. In 
mine of yesterday I did not intend to propose the surrender of 
the Army of Northern Virginia, but to ask the terms of your 
proposition. To be frank, I do not think the emergency has 
arisen to call for the surrender of this army, but as the 
restoration of peace should be the sole object of all, I desire to 
know whether your proposals would lead to that end. I cannot, 
therefore, meet you with a view to surrender the Army of 
Northern Virginia, but as far as your proposal may affect the 
C.S. forces under my command, and tend to the restoration of 
peace, I should be pleased to meet you at 10 a.m. to-morrow, 
on the old stage road to Richmond, between the picket-lines of 
the two armies. 

R. E. Lee, 



April 9, 1865 Grant to Lee 

General: Your note of yesterday is received. As I have no 
authority to treat on the subject of peace; the meeting 
proposed for 10 a.m. to-day could lead to no good. I will state, 
however, general, that I am equally anxious for peace with 
yourself, and the whole North entertains the same feeling. The 
terms upon which peace can be had are well understood. By 
the South laying down their arms they will hasten that most 
desirable event, save thousands of human lives, and hundreds 
of millions of property not yet destroyed. Seriously hoping that 
all our difficulties may be settled without the loss of another 
life, I subscribe myself, 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

U.S. Grant, 

April 9, 1865 Lee to Grant 

General: I received your note of this morning on the picket- 
line, whither I had come to meet you and ascertain definitely 
what terms were embraced in your proposal of yesterday with 
reference to the surrender of this army. I now ask an interview 
in accordance with the offer contained in your letter of 
yesterday for that purpose. 

R. E. Lee, 


Surrender Terms 

Head Quarters Armies of 
the United States 
Appomattox C.H., Va. 
Apl 9th, 1865 

General: In accordance with the substance of my letter to you 
of the 8th inst., I propose to receive the surrender of the Army 
of N. Va. on the following terms, to wit: 

Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate, one 
copy to be given to an officer to be designated by me, the other 
to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. 
The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms 
against the Government of the United States until properly 
exchanged, and each company or regimental commander to 
sign a like parole for the men of their commands. 

The arms, artillery and public property to be parked and 
stacked and turned over to the officer appointed by me to 
receive them. This will not embrace the side arms of the 
officers nor their private horses or baggage. This done each 
officer and man will be allowed to return to their homes, not to 
be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe 
their parole and the laws in force where they may reside. 

Very Respectfully 

U. S. Grant 

Lt. Gen. 

Lee's Acceptance 
Headquarters Army N. Va. 
April 9th, 1865 

General: I have received your letter of this date containing 
the terms of surrender of the Army of Northern Va., as 
proposed by you. As they are substantially the same as those 


expressed in your letter of the 8th inst., they are accepted. I 
will proceed to designate the proper officers to carry the 
stipulations into effect. 

Very Respectfully, 

Your obt. Servt. 

R. E. Lee 


Disposition of Arms 

Appomattox Court House 
April 10, 1865 

Agreement entered into this day in regard to the surrender of 
the Army of Northern Virginia to the United States authorities: 

1st. The troops shall march by brigades and detachments to a 
designated point, stack their arms, deposit their flags, sabres, 
pistols, etc., and from thence march to their homes under 
charge of their officers, superintended by their respective 
division and corps commanders, officers retaining their side 
arms, and the authorized number of private horses. 

2d. All public horses and public property of all kinds to be 
turned over to staff officers designated by the United States 

3d. Such transportation as may be agreed upon as necessary for 
the transportation of the private baggage of officers will be 
allowed to accompany the officers, to be turned over at the end 
of the trip to the nearest United States quartermaster, receipts 
being taken for the same. 

4th. Couriers and mounted men of the artillery and cavalry, 
whose horses are their own private property, will be allowed to 
retain them. 

5th. The surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia shall be 
construed to include all the forces operating with that army on 
the 8th instant, the date of the commencement of negotiations 
for surrender, except such bodies of cavalry as actually made 
their escape previous to the surrender and except also such 
pieces of artillery as were more than twenty miles from 
Appomattox Court House at the time of surrender on the 9th 

John Gibbon 
Maj. Gen. Vol. 

Chas. Griffin 

Bvt. Maj. Gen. U.S. Vol. 

W. Merritt 
Bvt. Maj. Gen' I. 

J. Longstreet 
Lt. Gen. 

J. B. Gordon 
Maj. Gen. 

W. N. Pendleton 

Brig. Gen. and Chf. Arty. 

General Order #9 

Hd Quarters Army of Nor. Va. 
10 April 1865 

After four years of arduous service marked by unsurpassed 
courage and fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia has been 
compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources. 


I need not tell the brave survivors of so many hard fought 
battles, who have remained steadfast to the last, that I have 
consented to this result from no distrust of them. 

But feeling that valor and devotion could accomplish nothing 
that could compensate for the loss that would have attended 
the continuance of the contest, I determined to avoid the 
useless sacrifice of those whose past services have endeared 
them to their countrymen. 

By the terms of the agreement, officers and men can return to 
their homes and remain until exchanged. You will take with 
you the satisfaction that proceeds from the consciousness of 
duty faithfully performed, and I earnestly pray that a Merciful 
God will extend to you His blessing and protection. 

With an unceasing admiration of your constancy and devotion 
to your country, and a grateful remembrance of your kind and 
generous consideration for myself, I bid you an affectionate 

R. E. Lee 

Gen' I 

1 C\C 

Civil War Battlefields and Related Sites 

Throughout the eastern half 
of the United States, the Na- 
tional Park Service maintains 
a number of the Civil War 
battlefields and other historic 
areas related to those times. 
These brief descriptions will 
give you an idea of the signif- 
icance of each site. You may 
wish to write to the superin- 
tendent for more information 
before your visit. 

Abraham Lincoln Birthplace 
National Historic Site, 2995 
Lincoln Farm Road, Hodgen- 
ville,KY 42748. Within a 
building made of Connecti- 
cut granite and Tennessee 
marble is a log cabin believed 
to be the one in which Presi- 
dent Abraham Lincoln was 
born February 12, 1809. A 
large part of the park is the 
Lincolns' farm. 

Andersonville National His- 
toric Site, Route 1 , Box 85, 
Andersonville, GA 31711. 
During the Civil War 13,000 
Union prisoners of war died 
here. Though Andersonville 
was the most notorious pri- 
son, there were other such 
camps throughout the North 
and the South where men 
died from lack of care, inade- 
quate facilities, and disease. 

Antietam National Battlefield 

Site, P.O. Box 158, Sharps- 
burg, MD 21782. The battle 
here on September 17, 1862, 
was one of the crucial engage- 
ments of the Civil War. And 
it gave President Lincoln the 
opportunity for issuing the 
Emancipation Proclamation. 

Arlington House, the Robert 
E. Lee Memorial, c/o George 
Washington Memorial Park- 
way, Turkey Run Park, 
VlcLean,VA 22101. In 1831 
Robert E. Lee married Mary 

Custis, the only child of G. 
W. P. Custis the builder of 
Arlington. It was here that 
Lee made his decision to re- 
sign from the U.S. Army. The 
estate was confiscated during 
the Civil War. 

Brices Cross Roads National 
Battlefield Site, c/o Natchez 
Trace Parkway, R. R. 1, 
NT-143, Tupelo, MS 38801. 
Here Gen. S. D. Sturgis's 
Federals clashed with Gen. 
Nathan Bedford Forrest's 
Confederates as they at- 
tempted to disrupt the flow 
of supplies to Sherman at 
Atlanta. The Confederates 
beat the Yankees, but the 
supplies kept on moving. 

Chickamauga and Chatta- 
nooga National Military Park, 

P.O. Box 2128, Fort Ogle- 
thorpe, GA 30742. At Chicka- 
mauga, September 19-20, 
1863, the Confederates hand- 
ily beat the Federal armies. A 
few months later, and greatly 
reinforced, the Union turned 
the tables with a victory that 
opened the way for Sherman's 
march into Georgia. 

Ford's Theatre National His- 
toric Site, c/o National Cap- 
ital Parks-Central, 900 Ohio 
Drive SW, Washington, DC 
20242. Here on the night on 
April 14, 1865, John Wilkes 
Booth stepped into a box at 
Ford's Theatre and shot Pres- 
ident Abraham Lincoln. The 
President was carried across 
the street to the Petersen 
house, now also owned by 
the National Park Service, 
where he died the next morn- 
ing. Ford's Theatre contains 
a museum of Lincolniana. 

Fort Donelson National Mili- 
tary Park, P.O. Box 434, 
Dover, TN 37058-0434. In 

February 1865, an obscure 
brigadier general, Ulysses S. 
Grant, steamed up the Ten- 
nessee and Cumberland riv- 
ers and captured Forts Henry 
and Donelson. He thus forced 
the Confederates to abandon 
Kentucky and much of Ten- 
nessee. It made Grant a hero 
to the North. 

Fort Pulaski National Monu- 
ment, P.O. Box 30757, Savan- 
nah, GA 31410. Fort Pulaski's 
admirers claimed that this 
brick fort was '"as strong as 
the Rocky Mountains." Yet 
the first time it came under 
fire, in 1862, it fell within 
30 hours, the victim of the 
latest in gun design, the rifled 

Fort Sumter National Monu- 
ment, 1214 Middle Street. 
SullivansIsland.SC 29482. 
At 4:30 a.m. April 12,1861. 
the Bombardment of Fort 
Sumter by South Carolina 
troops began. On April 14. 
the fort fell and the next day 
President Lincoln called for 
75,000 volunteers. The Civil 
War had begun. 

Fredericksburg and Spotsyl- 
vania County Battlefields 
Memorial National Military 
Park, 120 Chatham Lane. 
Fredericksburg. VA 22405. 
Four major battles took place 
in this area during the Civil 
War. Fredericksburg. 1862. 
andChancellorsville. 1863. 
were Confederate victories: 
Wilderness and Spotsylvania 
Court House, 1864. were 

General Grant National 
Memorial, 122nd Street and 
Riverside Drive. New York. 
NY 10027. This monument 
was dedicated in 1897 to the 
memory of Ulvsses S. Grant. 


Civil War leader and 18th 
President of the United 
States. The building contains 
the tombs of Grant and of his 
wife, Julia Dent Grant. 

Gettysburg National Military 
Park, Gettysburg, PA 17325. 
Here the Army of Northern 
Virginia met the Army of the 
Potomac on July 1, 1863. Af- 
ter three days of bloody fight- 
ing, Lee, checked in what 
would be his last attempt to 
invade the North, began to 
withdraw his army. 

Harpers Ferry National His- 
torical Park, P.O. Box 65, 
Harpers Ferry, WV 25425. 
Harpers Ferry is most famous 
for John Brown's raid in 1859. 
Seizure of the Federal armory 
was Brown's goal, for he in- 
tended to arm the slaves and 
free them. He failed; he was 
captured and hanged. 

Kennesaw Mountain National 
Battlefield Park, P.O. Box 
1 167, Marietta, GA 30061. In 
June 1864 the armies of Wil- 
liam T. Sherman faced those 
led by Joseph Johnston in 
Sherman's Atlanta Campaign. 
The fighting was inconclu- 
sive, and Sherman moved to 
flank Johnston who was 
forced to withdraw. 

Lincoln Boyhood National 
Memorial, Lincoln City, IN 
47552. Here Abraham Lin- 
coln spent his seventh through 
21st years. The park contains 
the grave of his mother, Nancy 
Hanks Lincoln, and a farm 
typical of those of the very 
early 19th-century pioneers. 

Lincoln Home National His- 
toric Site, 413 S. Eighth 
Street, Springfield, IL 62701. 
From 1844 to 1861 , Abraham 
Lincoln and his family lived 

lis house, the only one he 
ever owned. When he moved 
her as a country law- 

yer; when he left Springfield, 
he was President-elect of the 
United States. 

Manassas National Battlefield 

Park, 651 lSudley Road, 
Manassas, VA 221 10. On the 
banks of Bull Run, Confeder- 
ate forces won two victories. 
The first, July 1861 , showed 
the North that the South was 
serious and that this would 
be a long war. The second, 
August 1862, paved the way 
for Robert E. Lee's first inva- 
sion of the North. 

Monocacy National Battle- 
field, c/o Antietam National 
Battlefield, Box 158, Sharps- 
burg, MD 21782. On July 9, 
1864, Confederate Gen. Jubal 
T. Early defeated Union 
forces commanded by Brig. 
Gen. Lew Wallace. There are 
no federal facilities yet. 

Pea Ridge National Military 
Park, Pea Ridge, AR 72751. 
In the Civil War both the 
Union and the Confederacy 
strove to control Missouri be- 
cause of its strategic position. 
The March 1862 battle here 
led to an overall Union vic- 
tory and control of Missouri. 

Petersburg National Battle- 
field, P.O. Box 549, Peters- 
burg, VA 23804. Repeated 
frontal drives on Richmond 
all during the Civil War had 
failed. In the end, it was 
taken through its back door- 
Petersburg. After a nine 
months' siege Petersburg fell 
on April 2, 1865. The end of 
the war was in sight. 

Richmond National Battle- 
field Park, 3215 East Broad 
Street, Richmond, VA 23223. 
As the capital of the Confed- 
eracy, Richmond was caught 
in the struggle between the 
North and the South for four 
years. The park commemo- 
rates the Seven Days' Battles, 

Cold Harbor, and five lesser 

Shiloh National Military 

Park, P.O. Box61,Shilch, 
TN 38376. In April 1862 
Grant's Union forces were 
surprised by Albert Sidney 
Johnston's Confederates. The 
Federals recovered from the 
initial setback and won the 
battle but were too exhausted 
to exploit their victory. 

Stones River National Battle- 
field, 3501 Old Nashville 
Highway, Murfreesboro, TN 
37299. The battle of Stones 
River from December 31 , 
1862, through January 2, 1863, 
began the Federal offensive 
which culminated in Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

Tupelo National Battlefield, 

c/o Natchez Trace Parkway, 
R. R. 1,NT-143, Tupelo MS 
38801. The Nashville & Chat- 
tanooga Railroad was vital to 
Sherman's advance on At- 
lanta. And here Union forces 
successfully defended the rail 
line by beating off a Confed- 
erate attack. 

Vicksburg National Military 
Park, 3201 Clay Street, Vicks- 
burg, MS 39180. Control of 
the Mississippi was essential 
to the Union plan for win- 
ning the War. Here Union 
forces, led by Grant, achieved 
that goal. The besieged city 
fell July 4, 1863, the same day 
Lee was withdrawing from 

Wilson's Creek National 
Battlefield, Route 2, Box 75, 
Republic, MO 65738. This 
was the first battle in the 
contest for Missouri. And, 
though the Confederates won, 
their victory was so costly 
that nothing was gained. 

1 no 

Armchair Explorations: Some Books 
You May Want to Read 

Boatner, Mark M. The Civil War Dictionary. New York: D. 
McKay, 1959. 

Cadwallader, Sylvanus. Three Years with Grant, as Recalled 
by War Correspondent Sylvanus Cadwallader. Edited by 
Benjamin P. Thomas. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1955. 

Calkins, Christopher. From Petersburg to Appomattox: A 
Tour Guide to the Routes of Lee s Withdrawal and Grant 's 
Pursuit. Farmville, Va.: The Farmville Herald, 1983. 

Catton, Bruce. Grant Takes Command. Boston: Little, Brown, 
and Co., 1969. 

Cauble, Frank P. The Proceedings Connected with the Surren- 
der of the A rmv of Northern Virginia, April 1865. Lynchburg, 
Va.:H.E. Howard, 1987. 

Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence. The Passing of the Armies. 
New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1915. 

Davis, Burke. To Appomattox: Nine April Davs, 1865. New 
York: Rinehart and Co., Inc., 1959. 

Freeman, Douglas Southall. Lee s Lieutenants: A Study in 
Command. 3 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1944. 

R. E. Lee, A Biography. 4 vols. New York: Charles 

Scribner's Sons, 1936. 

Gallagher, Gary W., ed. Fighting for the Confederacy: The 
Personal Recollections of General Edward Porter Alexander. 
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. 

Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs. Edited by E.B. Long. 
Cleveland: World Publishing Co., 1952. 

Humphreys, Andrew A. The Virginia Campaign of '64 and 
'65. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1883. 

Maurice, Sir Frederick, ed. An Aide-de-Camp of Lee: The 
Papers of Colonel Charles Marshall. Boston: Little. Brown, 
and Co., 1927. 

Porter, Horace. Campaigning with Grant. New York: The 
Century Co., 1897. 

Stern, Philip Van Doren. An End to Valor: The Last Days of 
the Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1958. 



Numbers in italics refer to photographs, illustrations, or maps. 

Abbitt, William 97 
Alexander, Edward Porter 49, 

50, 63 

Amelia Court House 11,12, 

Andersonville National His- 
toric Site 107 

Antietam National Battlefield 
Site 107 

Appomattox (county) 92 
Appomattox County Court- 
house (building) 33, 68, 83, 86; 
photos, 30-31 41,42,87 
Appomattox Court House (vil- 
lage) 45, 101 ; cemetery in, 26, 
86; description of, 33, 69, 92-93; 
jail in, 96; maps and photos, 
6-8, 40-43, 84-97; restoration of, 
1 1 , 20, 94 

Appomattox Court House Na- 
tional Historical Park 80; lo- 
cation of, 86, 101 ; map of, 
88-89; restoration of, 83, 94 
Appomattox Land Company 83 
Appomattox River 14, 39, 52 
Appomattox Station 39-48 
passim, 87, 101 ; photo, 42 
Arlington House 107 
Army of Northern Virginia 
37-38, 39, 45; last battles of, 
map of retreat, 98-99. See also 

Army of the James, 14,46 
Army of the Potomac 34, 46, 
48; last battles of, 10-11,12-14, 
20,32-49, 100-101; behavioral 
surrender, 75-76 

Babcock, Orville E. 51 52, 53, 
59, 68 

Badeau, Adam 59 
Barnard, John 59 
Bocock, Henry Flood 97 
Bocock, Willis 97 
Bowers, Theodore 59 
Brady, John A. 69 
Brady, Mathew 55, 57 

Brices Cross Roads National 
Battlefield Site 107 

Cadwallader, Sylvanus 51 , 53, 

Casualties 14, 34, 39, 74 
Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence 
49, 75, 78, 97; biography of, 48, 
60; describes U. S. Grant, 71 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga 
National Military Park 107 
Claiborne, John H. 38 
Clover Hill Tavern 18 -20, 78, 
92; photos of, 8, 18-21, 40, 43, 

Cold Harbor 34, 35, 37, 100 
Confederate army, See Army 
of Northern Virginia 
Confederate Congress 37 
Cooke, John Esten 38 
Crater, The 100 
Cumberland Church 98, 101 
Custer, George Armstrong 46, 

Davis, Jefferson 57, 77 
Dent, Frederick 59 
"Dictator" 100 
Dunlap, M.E. 90 

Farmville 14,39,101 
Five Forks, battle of 1 1 , 32, 38, 

Ford's Theatre National His- 
toric Site 107 

Fort Donelson National Mili- 
tary Park 107 
Fort Gregg 1 1 

Fort Pulaski National Monu- 
ment 107 
Fort Stedman 100 
Fort Sumter National Monu- 
ment 107 

Fortifications 11, 12 
Fredericksburg and Spotsyl- 
vania County Battlefields 
Memorial National Military 
Park 107 

Gettysburg National Military 
Park 108 

Gibbon, John 46, 60 
Gordon, John Brown 36, 45, 

49, 63, 78 

Grant, Ulysses Simpson, 54, 

58-59, 70; as general-in chief, 


attitude at surrender, 20, 27, 

75, 77; biography of, 46-47, 55, 

71-72; negotiates surrender, 

47-48, 51 , 53, 66-69 passim, 

71-74, 102-6; strategy of, 10, 


Grant, Ulysses Simpson, III 


Grant National Memorial, 

General 107-8 

Hatcher's Run 10,11 
Harpers Ferry National His- 
torical Park 108 
Hebron Church 98, 101 
Hendrick, L. A. 69 
High Bridge 44 
Hillsman House 14 

Ingalls, Rufus 59, 68 
Isbell, Lewis 97 
Isbell House 41, 97 

James River 37, 92 
Jetersville 12, 14,39, 101 
Johns, Joshua O. 52, 68 
Johnston, Joseph Eggleston 

32, 38, 54, 63, 79 

Kanawha Canal 92 
Kelly, Lorenzo 96 
Kelly House 16 -1 7, 96 
Kennesaw Mountain National 
Battlefield Park 108 

Lee, Fitzhugh 36, 45, 64 
Lee, George Washington Cus- 
tis 39, 54, 64 
Lee, "Light-Horse Harry" 


1 m 

Lee, Robert Edward 56, 58-59, 

70; and surrender, 20, 47, 50, 
51-52, 66-69 passim, 71-74, 77, 
102-6; as commander of Army 
of Northern Virginia, 11,12, 
98-101; biography of, 36, 37, 
52-53, 57, 68, 71 , 107; sword of, 
52, 53 

Lee, Robert Edward, IV 90 
Lincoln, Abraham 14, 52, 55, 
79; and U.S. Grant, 47, 71-72; 
on surrender terms, 10, 32, 47 
Lincoln Birthplace National 
Historic Site, Abraham 107 
Lincoln Boyhood National 
Memorial 108 

Lincoln Home National His- 
toric Site 108 

Long, Armistead Lindsay 38, 

Longstreet, James 36, 45, 49, 
74; opinion of U. S. Grant, 46; 
photo, 65 
Lyman, Theodore 14, 46, 75 

McCarthy, Carlton 39 
McDearmon, Mr. 97 

McLean, Wilmer 33, 43, 53, 


McLean House 20, 68, 71; de- 
scription of, 33, 69, 91 ; looting 
of, 76; photos of, 22-25, 41, 
90-91 ; sale of, 83, 90 
Manassas National Battlefield 
Park 108 

Maps 35, 84-85, 98-99 
Marshall, Charles 48-49, 50, 58; 
at surrender, 52, 53, 68, 73, 75 
Meade, George Gordon 1 1 , 46, 
47, 49, 68; and the surrender, 
75,76,77; photo, 61 ; view of 
U.S. Grant, 47 
Meeks, Francis 87 
Meeks' Stable 40 
Meeks' Store 8, 12, 13, 40, 87 
Monocacy National Battlefield 

National Park Service 1 1 , 83, 


Ord, Edward Otho Cresap 46, 

50, 59; at surrender, 53, 69, 76; 
photo, 61 

O'Sullivan, Timothy 42, 43 
Owen, William 52 

Parker, Ely Samuel 51 , 58, 61 

Patteson, Alexander 95 

Pea Ridge National Military 

Park 108 

Peers, George 97 

Peers House 97 

Pendleton, William Nelson 36, 


Petersburg 32, 34, 35, 37-38 

Petersburg National Battlefield 


Plunkett, D. A. 97 

Plunkett, John 87 

Porter, Horace 59, 68, 72, 76, 


Raine home. See McLean 

Rapidan River 34 
Rawlings, James 87 
Rawlins, John Aaron 47, 51 , 
59, 62, 68 

Restorations 83, 86, 87, 91, 

Richmond 38, 99, 100 
Richmond and Danville Rail- 
road 12,38,39 

Richmond National Battlefield 
Park 100, 108 
Robinson, John 96 
Rosser, William, House 42 

Sailor's Creek, battle of 14, 39, 

Sailor's Creek Battlefield His- 
torical State Park 98, 101 
Sheridan, Philip Henry 10, 11, 
14, 50, 59, at the surrender, 74, 
76; photo, 62; raid, 35; route 
of, 12, 14, 46, 48; and Custer, 

Sherman, William Tecumseh 
27, 38, 54, 62, 79 
Shiloh National Military Park 

Southside Railroad 11 , 39, 45, 

Spotsylvania Court House 34, 

Stones River National Battle- 
field 108 

Supplies 12, 14, 21 
Surrender 27, 32; arrangement 
for, 50-53, 71-72; ceremony of, 
78; documents of, 2/, 102-6; 
U.S. Grant and Robert E. Lee 
at, 58-59; newspaper accounts 

of, 66-69; terms of, 10, 36-37, 
47-48, 67, 72-72. See also 
McLean House 

Taylor, Walter Herron 50, 65 

Tourist information 86-87, 98, 


Traveller 52, 68, 74 

Tupelo National Battlefield 108 

Union Academy Dwelling 
House 40 

Union army. See Army of the 
Potomac; Army of the James 

Vicksburg National Military 
Park 108 

Waud, Alfred R. 70 
Wilderness, battle of The 34, 

Williams, Seth 59, 68 
Wilson's Creek National Bat- 
tlefield 108 

Woodson, John W. 87 
Woodson's Law Office 8, 87 
Wright, Mariah, House 97 

^GPO: 1982—377-267/201 

Reprint 1992 


National Park 

The National Park Service expresses its apprecia- 
tion to all those persons who made the preparation 
and production of this handbook possible. 


Jay Luvaas, author of "Appomattox: A New 
Look" in Park 1, is professor of history at Alle- 
gheny College in Meadville, Pennsylvania. His 
books include Military Legacy of the Civil War: 
The European Inheritance and Education of an 
Army, British Military Thought 1815-1940. 

Joseph P. Cullen, author of "The Reestablishment 
of Peace and Harmony" in Part 2, is a former Na- 
tional Park Service employee who lives in Freder- 
icksburg, Virginia. He has written several maga- 
zine articles about the Civil War and is the author 
of The Peninsula Campaign, 1862. 


All color photography is by William A. Bake ex- 
cept for three photographs by Kevin Peer, 91 mid- 
dle and bottom, and 95 bottom. 
The painting on pages 58-59 is in the park collec- 
tion and hangs in the visitor center. 
Unless otherwise credited all black and white pic- 
tures are from the files of Appomattox Court 
House National Historical Park. 

of the Interior 

As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the 
Department of the Interior has responsibility for 
most of our nationally owned public lands and nat- 
ural resources. This includes fostering the wisest 
use of our land and water resources, protecting 
our fish and wildlife, preserving the enviromental 
and cultural values of our national parks and his- 
torical places, and providing for the enjoyment of 
life through outdoor recreation. The Department 
assesses our energy and mineral resources and 
works to assure that their development is in the 
best interest of all our people. The Department 
also has a major responsibility for American In- 
dian reservation communities and for people who 
live in island territories under U.S. administration. 

Clemson Universit 



Court House 



KsS 1 -*